Academic journal article International Journal of Yoga

Yoga as a Therapeutic Intervention for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Academic journal article International Journal of Yoga

Yoga as a Therapeutic Intervention for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Article excerpt

Byline: Santwana. Mondal, Brajanath. Kundu, Sukanta. Saha

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of 12 weeks yogic intervention on blood sugar and lipid profile in elder women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Subjects and Methods: Twenty elderly (age range 55-70 years) T2DM women were divided into two groups, namely, yogic intervention group (YIG: n = 10, age 64.70 [+ or -] 4.03, body mass index [BMI] 24.26 [+ or -] 3.40) and control group (CG: n = 10, age 64.40 [+ or -] 4.79, BMI 24.28 [+ or -] 2.36). YIG underwent yoga practice (Asanas, Kriyas, Pranayamas) for 12 weeks (3 sessions/week), while the CG continued their usual routine activities. Standing height, body weight, BMI, blood sugar, and lipid profile were measured before commencement and after 6 and 12 weeks of yogic intervention in both groups. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in fasting plasma glucose, postprandial blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein, with a significant (P < 0.01) increase in high-density lipoprotein level from its initial value in YIG, while showing insignificant result in CG. Conclusion: It can be said that yogic intervention may have the beneficial effects on blood sugar and lipid profile in elderly women with T2DM.

Introduction

Globally, diabetes represents the 3rd and 10th leading cause of loss of years of potential life among women and men, respectively.[1] The recent estimates by the International Diabetes Federation showed that the number of adults affected by the disease in 2011 was 366 million which was projected to increase to 552 million by 2030. Among the top 10 countries/territories with the largest number of diabetic adults, five are in Asia.[2] China tops the list with 90.0 million followed by India which has 61.3 million persons affected by diabetes. The numbers are estimated to rise to 129.7 million and 101.2 million, respectively, by 2030.[3],[4],[5] Keeping in view the alarming increase in the incidence and prevalence of diabetics in India, the WHO has declared India as the diabetic capital of the World.[6] Risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rises with increasing age and is further elevated in certain racial and ethnic groups, including Asians, Native Americans, and Pacific Islanders.[7],[8] However, while race, age, genetic predisposition, and other nonmodifiable factors are important in the pathogenesis of T2DM, lifestyle factors, particularly physical inactivity, over nutrition, and related obesity, are thought to be primarily responsible for the current global diabetes epidemic.[9] Other contributing lifestyle-related factors include chronic stress, impaired sleep, and smoking.[10],[11],[12],[13] In fact, lifestyle factors may account for 90% of incident diabetes cases [12] and are significant predictors of T2DM-related complications and mortality.[14] Thus, a central element of T2DM care is lifestyle management, which is considered critical to the prevention of acute complications and the reduction of risk for long-term complications.[15] A central goal in T2DM management is the reduction of blood glucose levels and improves lipid profile, which has been shown to reduce risk of microvascular and possibly certain other complications.[16] The characteristic features of diabetic dyslipidemia are high plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration, and increased concentration of small dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. Insulin resistance leads to increased flux of free fatty acids and hence the lipid changes.[17]

In light of the above, identifying sustainable lifestyle interventions with the potential to improve multiple factors of relevance to the management of T2DM are of clear importance. Mind-body practices such as yoga, which capitalizes on the ability of the mind to enhance physical health (and vice versa), appear particularly suited for addressing multifactorial conditions. …

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