Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

Peer Assessment of Webpage Design: Behavioral Sequential Analysis Based on Eye Tracking Evidence

Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

Peer Assessment of Webpage Design: Behavioral Sequential Analysis Based on Eye Tracking Evidence

Article excerpt


The adoption of peer assessment has become a trend in the classroom (Boud, Cohen, & Sampson, 1999), and there is already much research indicating that peer assessment promotes the effective development of cognition and affect. However, the quality and fairness of the assessments by those students who lack experience and confidence when assessing their peers' work have been questioned by many scholars (Ballantyne, Hughes, & Mylonas, 2002; White, 2009; Seng & Hill, 2014). Previous studies have also revealed that peer assessment is influenced by differences in the students' culture, personality, and friendship (Johnston & Miles, 2004; Panadero, Romero, & Strijbos, 2013; McLeay & Wesson, 2014). Therefore, how to overcome the problem of participants' individual differences in the peer assessment process has become an important issue.

Meanwhile, a growing number of studies have been exploring the impact of individual differences on peer review. Liu, Lin, and Yuan (2002) investigated the differences in the executive thinking styles of students in the peer assessment process. Learning style is one of the individual differences in digital learning studies. Solomon and Felder's Learning style model is one of the famous models, and includes four facets (Felder & Silverman, 1988; Soloman & Felder, 2005), namely action/reflective, sensing/intuitive, visual/verbal, and sequential/global. The past learning style survey results or eye movement study results have shown that most students tend to adopt a visual learning style (Hsu, Hwang, & Chang, 2014; Hsu, Hwang, Chang, & Chang, 2013). However, one past study indicated that students with mixed learning styles constitute a higher proportion than single-style learners (Lujan & DiCarlo, 2006).

There is another important factor affecting peer assessment outcomes, namely students' attitudes. There is a positive correlation between a positive attitude towards peer assessment and higher learning achievement. Therefore, in order to ensure the validity of peer assessment, teachers need to consider the students' personal affect during the learning process (Lin, Liu, & Yuan, 2001). One past study also found that students usually have a positive attitude towards peer assessment activities. These positive attitudes ensure that the students are fair and responsible when completing peer assessment (Cheng & Warren, 1997). However, some students also worry about their ability and their responsibility when evaluating their peers' work. To solve this problem, teachers must provide appropriate support to alleviate student stress (Cassidy, 2006).

In the last decade, many researchers have begun to analyze students' learning behavior. Because of the different learning behaviors which affect students' learning performance during the learning process (Hwang & Chen, 2016), learning behavior analytics has become an important issue in education (Hwang, Chu, & Yin, 2017). Learning behavior refers to the record of data related to students' behaviors and interactions with peers during learning activities (Hwang, Hsu, Lai, & Hsueh, 2017). Hwang, Hung, Chen, and Liu (2014) emphasized that instructors could effectively improve their teaching methods and learning activities by analyzing learning logs or educational data. However, there are few or even no studies related to analyzing behaviors during peer assessment.

Therefore, this study used quantitative and qualitative evidence to explore the results of peer assessment by students with the same kind of learning style (i.e., visual learning style). When exploring the individual behavior of students with the same kind of learning style in the website reading process, the scientific evidence of the eye tracker can be more objective than just knowing the results of the peer assessment score. Moreover, the quantitative results of peer assessment can be used to compare the differences between the learning behaviors of students who give high and low evaluation scores. …

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