Academic journal article International Journal of Entrepreneurship

Effect of Award, Incentives and Competition on Entrepreneurial Development among Female Farmers in North-West Province, South Africa: A Review

Academic journal article International Journal of Entrepreneurship

Effect of Award, Incentives and Competition on Entrepreneurial Development among Female Farmers in North-West Province, South Africa: A Review

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

In the African continent, the role women play in development cannot be overemphasized. Five of the world's estimated twenty female bank governors come from Southern African's countries and these are Botswana, Lesotho, Seychelles, Madagascar and South Africa. By occupying such positions in the economy of a country, it is evident that the gap created by gender inequality is slowly being bridged. A society that discriminates by gender tends to experience less rapid economic growth and poverty reduction than societies that treats both genders equally (Bradshaw et al., 2013). Bush (2015) stated that "by providing women with equal rights, improved education, opportunities for labour force participation and an increase in earning the opportunity, socioeconomic development in the community and country is boosted".

The 1995 Beijing conference as reported by the United Nations (2002) stated the importance of gender as an issue in developing countries which has led to the full implementation of the human rights for women, furthermore, the equal rights between women and men were declared. United Nations (2002) highlighted that the conference led to the empowerment and advancement of women, including the right to freedom of thought, conscience, religion and belief. Equal division and availability of resources have made it possible for women to own businesses and operate their own franchise. This development is seen as a means of job creation, poverty reduction and the menace of unemployment gradually been faced out in the economy has a result of their entrepreneurial spirit.

According to Nayab (2011), an entrepreneur is a person who starts and owns a business in the society be it a man or a woman. The terms "entrepreneur" and "entrepreneurship" are used by people interchangeably. Cantillon (1680-1734) defined an entrepreneur be it a man or a woman as an agent who buys means of production at certain prices to combine them into a new product. According to Nayab and Scudder (2011) and Say (1767-1832) improved Cantillion's definition by adding that an "entrepreneur brings people together to build a productive item". Furthermore, Knight (1885-1972) first introduced the dimension of risk-taking as a central characteristic of entrepreneurship and adds the dimension of risk-taking to earlier concepts. It considers uncertainty as a factor of production and holds the main function of the entrepreneur as earning a profit as a reward for taking such risks. Furthermore, Nayab and Scudder (2011) continued that Alfred Marshall (1890) "held land, labour, capital and considered entrepreneurship as the driving factor that brings these four factors of production together".

According to Nayab and Scudder (2011) "the characteristics of a successful entrepreneur include a thorough understanding of the industry, good leadership skills, and foresight on demand and supply and the willingness to act on such risky foresight". Mandipaka (2014) stated that "the success of an entrepreneur, however, depends not on possession of these skills, but on the economic situations in which they attempt their endeavours". Accordingly, Kirabira (2015) further discussed that for entrepreneurship to thrive in the rural communities an enabling environment is a necessity, the existence of such environment depends on policies promoting rural entrepreneurship. Furthermore, Petrin (1994) discussed that the effectiveness of such policies, in turn, depends on a conceptual framework, awards and incentives among other means of encouragement for more participation and production among women farmers.

Petrin (1994) stated that rural development is now being linked with entrepreneurship, institutions and individuals promoting rural development now see entrepreneurship as a strategic development intervention that could accelerate the rural development process. Mujuru (2014) stated that "agriculture is viewed as the main economic activity which contributes to the overall creation of wealth in the country" as such it then calls for both small-scale and large-scale farmers to practice entrepreneurial agriculture. …

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