Academic journal article Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management

The Colour-Forming Components of Park Landscape and the Factors That Influence the Human Perception of the Landscape Colouring

Academic journal article Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management

The Colour-Forming Components of Park Landscape and the Factors That Influence the Human Perception of the Landscape Colouring

Article excerpt

1. INTRODUCTION

Colour is a complex dynamic phenomenon, which depends on the light-colour-space environment in which it is located, and which determines the conditions of its perception (Matyushin, 1928). Such an approach to colour perception, in our opinion, is the most relevant for the colours study in the nature environment, as within it, it is rather not possible to separate colours. In accordance, park landscape colouring is a complex of park landscape colours in a certain period of time, which is determined by colours of landscape components and also colour-forming factors. The colouring is defined as the general coloration of the object or space that is formed as a result of the common effect of all colour composition components in perception, so, it is the total impression of all colours that create the composition at the same time (Abisheva, 2009). Park landscape colouring has a variable nature and changes throughout the day, year, and any longer period. An important aspect of landscape colouring study is the features of its perception, because colouring is eventually formed during this process. Colours are never perceived in isolation, but in their colourimetric characteristics that are changing (Hobhouse, 1985; Thorpert, Englund & Nielsen, 2018). Thus, the research of the landscape colouring can have two directions: object-oriented (focused on the study of landscape colour-forming factors) and subject-oriented (focused on human as a subject of perception and features of this process). In our research, attention is focused on determining the colour-forming factors of the park landscape and it is object-oriented.

Architects are frequently talking about creating an integral visually comfortable colour environment of architectural and natural objects of the city (Tarajko-Kowalska, 2012; Manav, 2017; Yilmaz, 2017). However, while implementing the concepts of organizing city colour environment a difficulty occurred: the lack of research about colour of landscape architecture objects (Bos, 2008; Thorpert et all, 2018) and factors of their formation.

The goal of our research is identification of colour-forming components of park landscape and factors which influence the colour perception of landscape, and also formation of their interconnection structure. The research was based on systematization of theoretical works and our own results of park landscape colouring assessment of the objects reaserched. The study of relationship between space environment elements is difficult, as they affect each other (Bakker, 2014). The complexity of systematizing the factors which create colouring of nature environment or influence the perception lies in their interpenetration. As per Stepanov (1985, p. 22) "Studying the aesthetic influence of colours, it is necessary to consider the laws of its multilateral direct and inverse connections. There are the colour and light, colour and 3-D form, colour and material, colour and function... these groups of interconnections are so closely combined that it is sometimes difficult to understand the difference between them."

2. THE OBJECTS AND METHODS OF THE RESEARCH

Peremoha Park, Slavy Park, Feofania Park, Taras Shevchenko Park, M. Rylsky Park in Holosiivo, "KPI" National Technical University of Ukraine Park are the objects of our research. They have different functionality, area, species of trees and shrubs, park composition and, accordingly, colouring.

The landscape colouring assessment was based on our own method (Gatalska and Mavko, 2012; Oleksiichenko and Mavko, 2013, 2015), that includes the following: photofixation of main park view-points during four seasons, processing these photos using graphic editors and determining main colours percentage in park landscape. Photo processing was carried out using the graphical editor "GIMP Image Manipulation Program".

3. RESEARCH RESULTS

According to the literature review (Matyushin, 1928; Bohovaya-Kapper, 1959; Minnaert, 1954; Stepanov, 1985; Bos, 2008; Abisheva, 2009) and Kyiv parks colour analysis results (Gatalska & Mavko, 2012; Oleksiichenko & Mavko, 2013, 2015; Oleksiichenko et all, 2017), we proposed the classification of factors and components that determine the colouring of the park landscape. …

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