Academic journal article Parergon

Nowhere in the Middle Ages

Academic journal article Parergon

Nowhere in the Middle Ages

Article excerpt

Lochrie, Karma, Nowhere in the Middle Ages (Middle Ages), Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016; cloth; pp. 280; 4 b/w illustrations; R.R.P. US$65.00, [pounds sterling]42.50; ISBN 9780812248111.

Nowhere in the Middle Ages begins with the premise that modern scholars believe that Thomas More's Utopia emerged from nowhere and that utopianism was the pure invention of More. In other words it had no past and the conception of utopianism, except for the medieval idea of New Jerusalem, did not exist before the early sixteenth century. Lochrie states that the boundaries of utopian studies in modern scholarship have been limited by this lack of a past for Utopia, and sets out to demonstrate that utopianism was 'somewhere' in the Middle Ages.

Instead of looking backwards from More to the Middle Ages Lochrie reads forward from the medieval utopian texts to More's Utopia. To establish the existence of utopian thought in the Middle Ages she believes that there is a need to establish a set of historical and theoretical questions other than those that are traditionally set for the study of utopianism after the sixteenth century. In short, there is a need to set new parameters to define utopianism. She first establishes four principles: (1) there is no need for utopianism to be concerned with the ideal society or a place; (2) it is not to be restricted to a single expression or genre, (3) it must be perceived to be located in productive dialogue with More's Utopia; and (4) the texts that she has chosen in this monograph are not intended to be exhaustive of medieval utopianism.

The main body of the monograph consists of five chapters, the first four looking at different aspects of utopianism from the Middle Ages and the last revealing how these aspects are embodied in More's text. Chapter 1 examines Cicero's Dream of Scipio, as known through Macrobiuss Commentary, and Kepler's Somnium. Both of these texts involve travelling through other worlds, lunar and celestial, but neither defines a social blueprint for reform. After his death Scipio travels the celestial spheres and reflects back at the Earth. The Dream of Scipio offers the 'capacious philosophical parameters for a cosmographic perspective on humanity's place in the world and the ethical placement' (p. 17). In a footnote Kepler states that he had Macrobius in mind when writing in Somnium of travels to an island named Levania (the moon). Both texts might or might not actually have a 'place'. Both texts share a utopian optic which stimulates philosophical and self- reflection that resemble scientific principles of cosmology. The texts should be considered as being utopianist without Utopia. Chapter 2 considers the fourteenth-century Middle English version of The Land of Cokaygne and the early thirteenth century French version Le fabliau de Cocagne. …

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