Academic journal article Psychiatry Journal

Demography and Risk Factors of Suicide in Bangladesh: A Six-Month Paper Content Analysis

Academic journal article Psychiatry Journal

Demography and Risk Factors of Suicide in Bangladesh: A Six-Month Paper Content Analysis

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Suicide is a neglected preventable public health problem across the globe and Bangladesh is not an exception [1]. About one million people die each year by suicide over the world with a global mortality rate of 16 per 100,000 and 39.6 per 100,000 in Bangladesh [1, 2]. Although suicide can happen at any stage of life, it is the second most frequent and in some countries it is the leading cause of death among people aged 15-24 years [1-3]. Developing countries account for about 73% of the global suicides and, on the continents level, Asia accounts for about 60% of global suicides [1, 2]. Bangladesh, being a densely populated developing country in Southeast Asia, has achieved health-related Millennium Developmental Goals (MDG) but suicide is still underaddressed [1,4]. There is no surveillance for suicide and nationwide study on suicide is yet to be conducted [1, 4]. Moreover, suicide is considered as a criminal offence and religious factors and social factors as well as legal consequences hinder the suicide disclosures [1, 5-8]. The source of information of suicide is mainly based on police report, forensic reports, media reports, and few other institutional reports such as those from hospitals and courts [1, 5]. People prefer to hide suicide news, as it is a criminal offence and aftermath of legal hazards is miserable for the family members. There is also dearth of research and paucity of literatures on suicide of this huge population. Suicide happens because of multifactorial involvement such as genetic, psychological, social, and cultural risk factors; those can interact in different perspectives such as diathesis-stress model and gene-environment interaction [3]. Psychiatric morbidities play an important role in suicide as previous research mentioned that about 90% of suicide victims were found to have at least one psychiatric disorder and depression was the most mentionable one [9,10]. In Bangladesh, previous studies found variations in risk factors and psychological autopsy is still yet to be conducted. This paper aimed to look into the suicide based on the contents of newspaper reporting in Bangladesh focusing on the demographic variables and risk factors of suicide.

2. Methods

2.1. Data Collection. 6 national daily newspapers were selected purposively to be included in the study and those were scrutinized from November 2016 to April 2017. Among them, 4 were Bangla newspapers (the Daily Jugantor, the Daily Ittefaq, Kaler Kantho, and Daily Prothom Alo) and two were English newspapers (the Daily Star and the Independent). The six papers were collected regularly and initial screening was conducted. Then those were checked by Srijony Ahmed and S. M. Yasir Arafat and approved for collection by cutting the selected parts. From the selected parts, data were organized along with the variables and written in master sheet. Then those were cross-checked by Srijony Ahmed and S. M. Yasir Arafat by comparing the collected parts of the papers and the master sheet. After that, final approval was made by Md. Mohsin Ali Shah and data were considered as mature to give software input. A total of 271 pieces of data were collected and analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 software and Microsoft Excel version 2007 software. Data were randomly checked by Md. Mohsin Ali Shah at any stage to ensure the correctness.

2.2. Inclusion of News. The following news reports were included:

   News that were clearly indicated as suicide

   Suicidal news of only Bangladeshi citizens

   Suicidal news bounded by the geographic area of
   Bangladesh

2.3. Variables. Age, sex, occupation, educational status, residence, religion, nuptial status, method of suicide, identifiable risk factors, time of suicide, noticing/reporting person, suicidal notes, any history of previous attempts, postmortem information, persons involved in suicide, association with psychiatric disorders, reporting variation, and numbers of papers reporting the news were considered as the variables of the study. …

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