Academic journal article International Journal of Entrepreneurship

The Impact of Bicultural Knowledge, Skills, Abilities and Other Experiences (Ksaos) on Individual Entrepreneurial Behavior: The Context of Entrepreneurial Discovery, Evaluation and Implementation

Academic journal article International Journal of Entrepreneurship

The Impact of Bicultural Knowledge, Skills, Abilities and Other Experiences (Ksaos) on Individual Entrepreneurial Behavior: The Context of Entrepreneurial Discovery, Evaluation and Implementation

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Introducing research on biculturalism into entrepreneurship literature is a promising line of inquiry to advance entrepreneurship theory across different cultures and enhance our understanding of the role of biculturalism in opportunity recognition, evaluation, and exploitation (Al-Shammari and Al Shammari, 2018). Prior to Lafromboise's work, much of the literature regarded only the negative ramifications of biculturalism, such as stress and identity conflict (Fordham, 1988; Sung, 1985). However, following Lafromboise,'s work, many research has focused on the importance of bicultural competencies, especially in the context of international human resource literature. Bell and Harrison, (1996) argued that such bicultural experiences increase the effectiveness and success likelihood of international expatriates due to their diverse cognitive abilities and mixed cultural backgrounds.

An interesting study was done by Robles and Cordero-Guzman, (2007) on the Latino population in the United States-the largest bicultural minority- found that the low educational levels may be a motivating factor in the push into self-employment. The study also found that the lack of financial resources (either personal wealth or access to capital) for exploitation and expansion purposes hinders the business creation and growth stages; and most Latino entrepreneurial activity was concentrated in the service sector. Although the study did not directly address the biculturalism factor in the large proportion of Latinos entrepreneurial activities, it did however shed lights on important factors that signify the driving forces in developing entrepreneurial intentions among bicultural individuals. The study called for research that can unearth the social aspects of micro-entrepreneur and self-employed sector, among which the authors named ethnic biculturalism as a major element to be considered. The study represents a foundation and legitimate base to make an argument for the role of bicultural skills, knowledge, abilities, and other experiences in developing somewhat different entrepreneurial views that help the individuals see the arising opportunities quicker, realizing new potential opportunities in their communities and the local (host country) community.

The recognition, evaluation and exploitation of opportunities are the three major developmental stages of entrepreneurship (Shane, 2000). Acquired prior knowledge, experiences and skills can significantly influence the individual's entrepreneurial intentions (Baker, Gedajlovic and Lubatkin, 2005; Eckhardt and Shane, 2003; Shane, 2000), as well as the person's ability to discover, evaluate, and exploit new opportunities (Tumasjan, Welpe and Sporrle, 2013). The opportunity discovery, evaluation, and exploitation on the other hand are formed by the individual-setting interactions (Helmsing, 2015; Lim, Oh and De Clercq, 2016; Shane and Venkataraman, 2000a). These interactions vary largely across different contexts, cultures, and environments, which results in different cognitive outcomes that greatly affect individuals' abilities, skills, and knowledge. Therefore, it is important for entrepreneurship scholars to incorporate the various cultural components into the entrepreneurship research so the theory can be further advanced.

Building on this, it is therefore critical to assess whether those individuals with bicultural skills, abilities, knowledge and other experiences will exhibit more likelihood of developing entrepreneurial behaviour, especially in the opportunity recognition, evaluation and selection and exploitation behaviours. This is our purpose in this paper. We shed lights on an important area that entrepreneurship researchers have paid little attention to. Despite the heavy emphasis by several scholars on differences across cultures and countries, most research has focused on cross-country differences in entrepreneurship activities. To our knowledge, no studies have addressed the phenomena of bicultural entrepreneurs who operate in a host country. …

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