Academic journal article Indian Journal of Community Psychology

Migration and Mental Health of Tribal in Dumka District of Jhakhand

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Community Psychology

Migration and Mental Health of Tribal in Dumka District of Jhakhand

Article excerpt


Migration has its positive as well as negative impact on mental health. The persons who go outside the district or state for job have different dimension as to judge their reason for going there. Many of them who enjoyed migration were found mentally well and no anxiety comes out from their face. In contrary of it the persons who used to feel themselves compelled to go outside the native place in search of job is found under stress and may have mental health problems, because they were found very serious about the future of their family members. In case of failure of getting such expected job or money they become the victim of mental tension and disorders.

Migration has been defined broadly as a permanent or semi-permanent change of residents (Lee, 1969). Migration creates conditions for deep-rooted changes in the social and cultural life of both the migrant community as well as host community. The term has been defined in the New Webster's Dictionary (1966) as "the act of an instance of moving from one country, region of place to settle in another (2) the act or an. Yousef et. al. (1978) has shown that gender differences do create distinct patterns of migration. The focus of the studies on migration in India was the level and pattern of migration (Davis, 1961; Kadi and Sivamurty, 1988; Malhotra, 1974; Narayan, 1993; Skeldon, 1986; Srivastava, 1998). Very few studies have focused on women's migration (Gulati, 1983; Jetley, 1987; Lingam, 1995; Premi, 1980; Singh, 1978).

Similarly, Tee Rink (1995) has documented the seasonal survival migration of poor tribal (Bhil) households from Maharashtra to the sugarcane fields of southern Gujarat. The study on seasonal out-migrating workers, especially women from the Chhattisgarh region of Eastern Madhya Pradesh are known locally as Sukhavasis (happy people) by Sen (1995), highlights the physical hardships, sexual vulnerability, lack of social security and access to services that migrants face at the point of destination.The studies on migration done by Banerjee (1985), Caldwell (1967), Cowling & Metcalf (1968), Mandal (1981), Nanda (1964), Todaro (1969) found that economic factors are responsible than the social and political. Barnum (1976) has however, studied correlation of social and political factors with economic structure.

Yousef et. al. (1979) studied socio-economic reasons of women migration and found those migrating to urban areas are mostly young women in the teens. Sengupta et. al. (1988) studied the impact of urbanization on the rural migrants and found individual migration of migrants has now become family migration, were access to skilled, better paid and more secure source of income is possible. Reddy (1992) studied the socio-economic reasons of women migration, which are divided into push and pull forces.

Srinivasan (1997) found impact of development process badly affected the lives of migrated women in India. Economic reasons were the main factor of their migration. Migration, through labour contractors is more prevalent in Gumla district than the districts of Palamau and Dumka. The labour contractors arrange for their travel to the destination and provide loan and advances to them. Around 40 per cent of the migrants take advance before migration. Migration to rural destination is more prevalent in Dumka than the two other districts. More than two-thirds of the Schedule Tribals migrate to rural destination. Only 10 per cent of them migrate to far off places like Kargil, Delhi, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Mizoram, Tripura etc. Nearly 86.3 per cent migrate to the neighboring states of UP, Bihar and Bangal. At the destination place they mainly work as agriculture and non-agriculture labours mainly in brick kiln.

Kelkar & Devnathan (1991) found tribal women in Jharkhand state are less educated and untrained due to poverty. They do not have equal right in property like men folk. Even then they are bound to look after their family because most of the tribal men in Jharkhand have bad habits of drinking Haria (Rice) and Daru (wine). …

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