Academic journal article The Journal of Parapsychology

Measuring Organizational Closure in the MPI/GQT/CMM Context/ Mesurer la Cloture Organisationnelle Dans le Contexte Du MPI/GQT/CMM/ Zur Messung der Organisierten Geschlossenheit Im Kontext Von MPI/VQT/KMM/ Medicion del Cierre Organizativo En El Contexto MPI/GQT/CMM

Academic journal article The Journal of Parapsychology

Measuring Organizational Closure in the MPI/GQT/CMM Context/ Mesurer la Cloture Organisationnelle Dans le Contexte Du MPI/GQT/CMM/ Zur Messung der Organisierten Geschlossenheit Im Kontext Von MPI/VQT/KMM/ Medicion del Cierre Organizativo En El Contexto MPI/GQT/CMM

Article excerpt

Organizational closure (OC) has been a consistent element of Walter von Lucadou's Model of Pragmatic Information (MPI) for many years (Lucadou, 1996). More recently, with Harald Walach, Hartmann Romer, and others, he has discussed the relevance of this term within a Generalized Quantum Theory (GQT) interpretation of mind-matter or psychokinesis experiments (Lucadou, Romer, & Walach, 2007) and its relevance to the Correlation Matrix Method (CMM: Lucadou, 2015; Flores, Tierney, & Watt, 2018). In this method, maximal OC is considered necessary, in addition to complementary measurements or observations, to produce the conditions that allow the occurrence of non-local entanglement correlations. These occur within the matrices derived from psychological and physical variables in psychokinesis experiments. Consequently, a user-friendly measurement of OC in the CMM experiments would be useful. This research note proposes that a single measure, retrospective estimate of duration, accurately reflects the elements/processes within a CMM experiment that are specific and autonomous to that trial and, in the sense that "one cannot step in the same river twice," measures the degree of OC assessed from within.

Defining and Maximizing Organizational Closure

In the terms defined by Maturana and Varela (1992) "an organization denotes those relations that must exist among the components of the system for it to be a member of a specific class" (p.43). The class of experiments that the CMM seeks to investigate is one that promotes non-local entanglement correlations.

The term organizational closure is associated specifically with Varela and describes an organization of processes such that: "(1) the processes are related as a network, so that they recursively depend on each other in the generation and realization of the processes themselves, and (2) they constitute the system as a unity recognizable in the space (domain) in which the processes exist" (Varela, 1979, p.55). Varela believed that organizational closure is closely related to autonomy and that "every autonomous system is operationally closed" (Varela, 1979, p. 58; Bourgine & Varela, 1992). An autonomous process can be defined as: "undertaken or carried on without outside control" (Merriam-Webster, Definition 1 b).

What does Varela's somewhat abstract definition mean in practical terms for experimental parapsychologists? Below, we highlight four elements of the experimental system implicated in OC and that may be manipulated to maximize OC.

Attentional: Primarily this relates to the participants' engagement with the experiment, the degree to which they are absorbed in the experience. We suggest that retrospective estimate of duration adequately measures this element. However attention is affected by, and is entwined with, the next two elements.

Emotional/affective: This subdivides into those elements specific to the participant and the experimenter separately, and those that result from their interaction. That these affective elements are very strongly entwined with the first, attentional, one has been explored by many researchers (see Glicksohn, 2001, for a review). Primarily they involve concepts of arousal as reflected in excitement, anxiety, anticipation, and competitiveness, in the experimenter but primarily in the participant.

The anecdotal observation on successful psi-inducing environments make reference to the degree to which the experimenter can produce a warm, welcoming, honest and trusting ambience that involves a little light-hearted humor and competition. Importantly these elements, in combination with the next, reduce the distraction that would result from apprehension and doubt (Kennedy & Taddonio, 1976), thus maximizing OC.

Contextual: This includes the participant/experimenter interaction over the entirety of the participant's involvement, as well as the physical environment. …

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