Academic journal article Business: Theory and Practice

The Overview-Analytical Document of the International Experience of Building Smart City

Academic journal article Business: Theory and Practice

The Overview-Analytical Document of the International Experience of Building Smart City

Article excerpt

Introduction

The concept of "smart cities" is gaining popularity over the last 10 years. That is why at the beginning of the previous decade, the global IT-leaders have come to the smart cities market and offer city governments comprehensive urban management solutions. In practice realize and scale to different cities this integrated approach was not fully implemented. So far smart city is a set of isolated vertical solutions. To integrate them on the basis of single digital platforms is an urgent and difficult task for business and city authorities.

Today smart city does not replace the development of society with technological rearmament of the urban environment. People's participation in the processes of management, improvement, joint use of property becomes the subject of attention not only urbanites and sociologists, but also representatives of business. The most advanced of them are convinced that the main consumer in the market of smart cities will be a citizen, surrounded by real-time information services, is ready to pay for living in clean and safe neighborhoods, in energy-efficient buildings using affordable and fast transportation. Consequently the creation of the concept of smart city is one of the most urgent and debatable issues for the development of the infrastructure of the entire city.

Preliminary research has shown that at the moment there is a fairly large number of cities that can be considered a smart city. At the same time, they have many common characteristics, but there are also unique, respectively it was previously revealed that there is no standard for measuring urbanization. Thus, the main purpose of the study is to develop recommendations for starting the construction of a smart map for any city. The preliminary hypothesis consists of the following: the map of a city's smartization is unique, but is based on unified defined criteria, which need to be identified by studying international experience.

After this introduction, we present a literature review. Later, we conduct the theoretical and empirical analysis. Then, we discuss the results. Finally, we present the conclusions.

1. Literature review

Recently, many scientists discuss the concept of smart city, both in general and locally, delving into specific aspects.

The paper "Smart Cities" by Betis et al. (2018) as well as Edy Portmann et al. (2016), brought together recent international research on one of the most challenging and multidisciplinary subjects of present and future engineering, architectural, medical, economic, information, and social sciences: the smart city paradigm. The article aims to analyze the features of "smart cities" and show how composed current international technological trends in basic urban infrastructure segments to be used in the future. Petar Solic et al. (2018) analyzed a set of papers that deal with a number issues appearing in the process of moving towards building efficient smart cities architectures. Gathered technical contributions went throughout standard review process with at least three reviews per paper. Total of 12 accepted contributions are divided into three main groups; ranging from the hardware to the upper networking layers and finally ending with application layer. Harish Kumar et al. (2018) explore all the possible services among various city dimensions which can make a city smart. The ideas related to smart services are collected from the peer vetted creative crowdsourcing process performed online in India.

Many scientists have studied their cities (Achmad et al. 2018, Woyke 2018, Bradbeer and Tsang 2018) and countries (Pinheiro Junior and Cavalheiro 2017, Dias and Cacho 2018, Gomez-Exposito et al. 2018) on the subject of whether or not they are smart, which part corresponds to the conventional indicators of smart city, what factors hinder the further development in this direction and which steps should be taken. …

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