Academic journal article International Journal of Business

Leadership Behaviors and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Mediating Role of Job Involvement

Academic journal article International Journal of Business

Leadership Behaviors and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Mediating Role of Job Involvement

Article excerpt

I. INTRODUCTION

Globalization and competition coupled with the growth of the service economy globally require employees in service organizations such as hotels to make rapid decisions without much consultation and discussions with their leaders (Jung and Yoon, 2013; Jha, 2014). This is because the above factors have raised service experience expectations of customers in the hospitality environments. As a result, customers increasingly now expect services and products to exceed their expectations. However, as service-oriented organizations, customer experience in the hospitality sector is extremely reliant on face-to-face interactions between service consumers and workers (Baum, 2015; Tracey, 2014; Madera, Dawson, Guchait and Belarmino, 2017). In this regard, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) of workers in the hospitality industry are important (Koyuncu, Burke, Astakhova, Eren and Cetin, 2013; Jha, 2014). Hospitality institutions where employees tend to engage in OCB can enhance their core competences, improve service quality, enhance customer satisfaction and potentially perform better than their competitors (Chiang and Hsieh, 2012; Podsakoff, Whiting, Podsakoff and Blume, 2009; Tang and Tang, 2012; Wang and Wong, 2011). Generally, OCB is voluntary, beneficial to people and organizations, and it is not a part of the formal system of the organization (e.g. Ma, Qu, Wilson and Eastman, 2013; Ozduran and Tanova, 2017; Organ, 1988; Podsakoff et al., 2009; Wang, 2014). For instance, Organ (1988) describes OCB as an "individual behavior at work that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal rewards system, and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective functioning of the organization" (p.4).

A potential antecedent of OCB in the hospitality industry is leadership behavior (Koyuncu et al., 2013; Zou, Tian and Liu, 2015). According to Koyuncu et al. (2013), front-line workers make significant contributions to hotels' competitiveness, and that leadership behaviors may be critical in eliciting desired employee behaviors. Zou et al. (2015) also posit that stakeholders in the hospitality industry should recognize leadership behaviors as instrumental in remedying the deficiencies of hotel employment for enhanced results. Recently, Chen and Wu (2017) call on researchers in the hospitality field to explore the most effective leadership behaviors that can inspire front-line employees to exhibit OCB. Admittedly, the effects of leadership behaviors, specifically, transformational leadership (TFL) and transactional leadership (TSL) behaviors on OCB have been examined in the hospitality industry and in other sectors (see Bilgin, Kuzey, Torlak and Uyar, 2015; Cho and Dansereau, 2010; Jha, 2014; Mekpor and Dartey-Baah, 2017; Park, Song, Yoon and Kim, 2013; Patiar and Wang, 2016; Sechudi and Olivier, 2016; Tracey and Hinkin, 1994).

However, findings of these studies still lack consistency. For example, leadership behavior may have positive (Jha, 2014; Mekpor and Dartey-Baah, 2017), negative (Patiar and Mia, 2009), or no effect (Bilgin et al., 2015; Tracey and Hinkin, 1994) on OCB. Aside, we observe that majority of the studies (e.g. Bilgin et al., 2015; Cho and Dansereau, 2010; Patiar and Wang, 2016; Park et al., 2013; Sechudi and Olivier, 2016) mainly focused on TFL behavior with less attention being paid to TSL behavior. This concentration on either TFL or TSL has resulted in the lack of a more comprehensive TFL/TSL and OCB model (Patiar and Mia, 2009; Uen et al., 2012). Hence, the first research objective is to contribute to literature by investigating the effect of leadership behaviors (TFL and TSL) on OCB in the Ghanaian hospitality industry.

In addition, a survey of the literature reveals that mediators employed in previous studies include commitment and job satisfaction (e.g. Bilgin et al., 2015), individual and group-level justice perceptions (e.g. Cho and Dansereau, 2010), envy (e. …

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