Academic journal article Environmental Health Perspectives

Use of a Mouse Model of Experimentally Induced Endometriosis to Evaluate and Compare the Effects of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol AF Exposure

Academic journal article Environmental Health Perspectives

Use of a Mouse Model of Experimentally Induced Endometriosis to Evaluate and Compare the Effects of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol AF Exposure

Article excerpt

Introduction

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are environmental toxicants that interfere with the endocrine system and can do so at various doses. Essentially, these EDCs disrupt normal hormone function by either mimicking or blocking hormones and cause adverse health effects (Gore et al. 2015a, 2015b). Much like hormones, EDCs can be functional at low doses; therefore, they have a great impact on health and disease (Schug et al. 2011). EDCs are pervasive and known to affect common diseases, such as breast cancer, diabetes, obesity, and heart disease (Chen WY et al. 2016; Rachon 2015). The bisphenols are EDCs known to act through the estrogen receptors (ERs) to regulate downstream signaling and gene expression responses (Lei et al. 2017; Li et al. 2013; Matsushima et al. 2010). Bisphenol A (BPA), used to make polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, is estrogenic and is being phased out of currently manufactured polycarbonate plastics (Vandenberg et al. 2013). Instead, Bisphenol AF (BPAF), a fluorinated homologue of BPA, is one of the alternatives used as a BPA replacement for cross-linking. Mass quantities of BPAF are now being produced in the United States annually, and recently, BPAF was detected in food, dust, sediment, and municipal sewage sludge (Chen D et al. 2016; Pelch et al. 2017). As with BPA, studies demonstrate BPAF acts estrogenically through ER[alpha] and ER[beta] (Li et al. 2012, 2013, 2018; Matsushima et al. 2010) and that BPA and BPAF have acted agonistically and antagonistically on ERs and ER downstream functionality (Pelch et al. 2017). BPAF is more estrogenic than BPA (Li et al. 2012, 2013); therefore, BPAF may have the potential to be a contributing factor in the higher incidence of endometriosis.

Endometriosis affects ~ 10 million women and adolescents of reproductive age, and costs associated with disease are upwards of $ 120 billion in the United States alone, using the most recent direct and indirect cost estimates of disease (Soliman et al. 2018). Endometriosis occurs when functioning endometrial tissue attaches outside of the uterine cavity (Sampson 1927; Syrop and Halme 1987). This attachment is a result, in part, of retrograde menstruation, in which menstrual tissue flows back through the fallopian tubes and into the peritoneal cavity (Sampson 1927; Syrop and Halme 1987). Approximately 90% of women experience retrograde menstruation, but only ~ 10% will develop endometriosis (Sampson 1927; Syrop and Halme 1987). Endometrial lesions are found attached to sites in the peritoneal cavity, such as the fallopian tubes, ovaries, peritoneal wall, and bowel. Symptoms include painful menstruation, pain with intercourse, infertility, and chronic pain (Giudice and Kao 2004). A true diagnosis of disease is achieved only through laparoscopic surgery, and most treatments (e.g., birth control pills and pain medication) are treating only symptoms, not the disease (May et al. 2010). The pathogenesis of disease is largely unknown; however, the proliferation of endometriosis is known to be hormone dependent (Giudice and Kao 2004). The incidence of endometriosis has risen from approximately 3.3% in the 1970s (Houston et al. 1987) to a current incidence of 10-15% and as high as 70% in women with chronic pelvic pain (Fuldeore and Soliman 2017; Parasar et al. 2017); however, whether this increased incidence is due to disease awareness or environmental toxicant exposure is not understood (Anger and Foster 2008).

In previous studies, EDCs have been associated with the progression of endometriosis. In particular, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was the first reported EDC to lead to the development of severe endometriosis in rhesus monkeys (Rier and Foster 2003; Rier et al. 1993, 2001). Currently, BPA is one of the best-known and most-pervasive EDCs (Rachon 2015). Women with endometriosis had more abundant serum levels of BPA than did women without disease (Cobellis et al. 2009), and a population-based study reported that higher urinary BPA levels are associated with a greater risk of nonovarian pelvic endometriosis (Upson et al. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.