Academic journal article The Qualitative Report

Pedagogical Perspectives on Counselor Education: An Autoethnographic Experience of Doctoral Student Development

Academic journal article The Qualitative Report

Pedagogical Perspectives on Counselor Education: An Autoethnographic Experience of Doctoral Student Development

Article excerpt

The Development of Pedagogical Self-Efficacy in Counselor Education Training

The identity of a counselor educator is multi-faceted; it involves taking on a spectrum of leadership roles within higher education as instructor, supervisor, and researcher, in addition to integrating foundational clinical experience (Baltrinic, Jencius, & McGlothlin, 2016; Sears & Davis, 2003). Different aspects of training may be utilized more than others, depending on the culture and expectations of counseling programs where doctoral graduates are eventually employed. Regardless, it is implied that the training includes teaching doctoral students how to teach with the inclusion of developing one's own pedagogy and how that instructional theory is implemented in the classroom. For the purpose of this article we employed the Oxford Dictionary definition of pedagogy as the "method and practice of teaching, especially as an academic subject or theoretical concept" (Oxford Dictionary, 2017, "Pedagogy"). As a research team, we wanted to explore the professional development of counselor education doctoral trainees engaging in a course on pedagogy. This line of inquiry aligns with a call by accreditation standards for an evaluation of pedagogy in counselor education (Barrio Minton, Wachter Morris, & Yaites, 2014; Council of Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs [CACREP], 2016).

Increasingly in counselor education, foundational teaching experience is being highlighted as imperative for faculty candidates to possess (Baltrinic et al., 2016; Barrio Minton et al., 2014; Hunt & Gilmore, 2011; Malott, Hall, Sheely-Moore, Krell, & Cardaciotto, 2014; Orr, Hall, & Hulse-Killacky, 2008). While the prioritization of teacher training versus research training may vary across counselor education programs, faculty promotion criteria now more strongly emphasize a teaching focus over scholarship (Baltrinic et al., 2016; Barrio Minton et al., 2014; Orr et al., 2008). The 2016 CACREP standards reflect this shift, with more emphasis placed on the importance of explicit training for doctoral students in instructional theory, than had existed in previous versions (CACREP 2001, 2009).

The 2016 CACREP standards explicitly state the importance of counselor education doctoral students developing a professional identity related to teaching practices and responsibilities (CACREP, 2016, 6.B.3). This expectation includes the requirement to partake in learning experiences focused on instructional theory and methods relevant to counselor education. CACREP standards are designed to allow programs to determine how criteria are fulfilled; however, the teaching training requirement is not standardized across counselor education programs. Therefore, it is difficult to assess how effectively doctoral programs are prioritizing this component of students' development (Malott et al., 2014) and, relatedly, how prepared graduating candidates are for achieving success in counselor education positions. As doctoral students in a counselor education program, we became interested in investigating what the impact of pedagogical training was on our development as instructors.

A literature review revealed scant research that focused on the pedagogical component in doctoral level counselor education training. Between the late 1990's and early 2000's, multiple authors have identified a lack of attention paid specifically to pedagogy in counselor educator training. In 1998, the editors of Counselor Education and Supervision highlighted that pedagogical development needs to be emphasized in doctoral level training (Fong, 1998). Granello (2000) expressed concern that "counselor education lacks a coherent, articulated pedagogy" (p. 270). Barrio Minton et al. (2014) conducted a content analysis of peer-reviewed articles on the scholarship of teaching and learning published by ACA and its divisions between 2001 and 2010 and found only 2. …

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