Academic journal article Academy of Strategic Management Journal

Formulating Strategic Management in Social Capital within Gated and Guarded Community to Achieve Social Well-Being

Academic journal article Academy of Strategic Management Journal

Formulating Strategic Management in Social Capital within Gated and Guarded Community to Achieve Social Well-Being

Article excerpt


Strategic management is a process to evaluate, planning and implement creative design to manage and improve competitive advantage. Meaning that evaluation process is more concerned to the internal and external surrounding, therefore, roles of planning is to develop the best strategy and collaborate with action to ensure the successful in the task given. Whilst implementations play important roles to ensure the systematic and organize organizational can be achieved (Lins et al., 2017). Then, the notion of social capital has achieved an alternative prominence inside the community area and the approaches delivered in economics with the idea that any social matters arise and it was proposed a wonderful form of contributions starting from micro to macro views (Lollo, 2012). Therefore, social capital is the value of social networks and is determined by voluntarism, donating, neighbourhood-activities and charity. It can be seen as resources that could in-or decrease within a society or group of community (Dill, 2015). Gated and guarded community is such enclave ordinarily represents private neighborhoods (Kohn, 2004; McKenzie, 1994) which means personal and manipulates their personal offerings, infrastructure and facilities; and need to get an access to enter their boundary (Tedong et al., 2016). According to Atkinson & Blandy (2005), gated and guarded community can be defined as fences around the boundary where the public have to get permission before entering this area. It was characterized through using agreements which tie the residents to a regularly occurring code of behavior and collective responsibility for managing. As general, gated community can be defined as groups of community within the vicinity which is secured by 24 hour guard service and clearly bound with fence and absolutely make use of by security features (Usman et al., 2007; Rahim, 2013). In order to achieve social well-being among community, social capitals play an important role and organize by strategic management tools.


Issue Arise in Gated and Guarded Community

In section 46 of The Street, Drainage & Building Act 1974, preventing from using public road is viewed as an offence (Rahim, 2013). Many researchers from the west country demonstrates the idea of fenced communities has brought about accelerated segmentation and segregation of socioeconomic populations (Usman et al., 2007) and creating a wide range of social issues among the population. So, it will affect relationships among the population. Refer to the Table 1 below, it shown number of issue discuss previously.

Social Well-Being among Community

Aim and basic of social well-being in the community depends on the position level by individuals, family and in the community itself (Haris, 2010). It was determined by three aspects which is a social problem management, fulfillment of condition life and social mobility within the community (Midgley, 1995). Thus, it will create a balance between safe environments; maximize social mobility and fulfillment of basic need for each individual.

The previous researcher looks forward into social well-being from objective and subjective aspect to enhance the quality of urban (Smith & Clay, 2010; Zaimah et al., 2017). Subjective aspect is more related to the human emotional, feeling and satisfaction (Diener & Suh 1997; Mohd Yusof, 2013). But if the people feel threatened stress, pressure it is shown deterioration in well-being (Sidal & Kang, 2016). Therefore, social well-being and quality of life are two different things and previous research shown that satisfaction in neighborhood will affected community social well-being (Sidal & Kang, 2016; Zaimah et al., 2017; Smith & Clay 2010; Sirgy & Cornwell, 2002; Sirgy et al., 2000).

Strategic Management in Social Capital

In line with Putnam's proposed measurement of social capital, community can be connected through several elements which are trust and network. …

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