Academic journal article The Qualitative Report

Identification of Instructional Design Strategies for an Effective E-Learning Experience

Academic journal article The Qualitative Report

Identification of Instructional Design Strategies for an Effective E-Learning Experience

Article excerpt

In the age of technological advancement, the approach towards teaching and learning needs to be given a new thought and there is a need to bring the old practices on to the technology platform (Beetham & Sharpe, 2013). In the last decade, the learning domain has undergone a drastic change (Adams Becker et al., 2017; Alper & Gulbahar, 2009; Hwang & Tsai, 2011; Wu et al., 2012). On one side, there is a remarkable growth in the usage of learning technologies likewise learning through games (Tobias, Fletcher, & Wind, 2014), MOOCs (Reich, 2015), sign-based learning (Sheu & Chen, 2014), magnified reality (Bower, Howe, McCredie, Robinson, & Grover, 2014) and so on to ensure teaching and learning. On the other hand, there has been a marked decrease in ineffective face-to-face training technology (Bayne, 2015; Bingimlas, 2009; Cuban & Jandric, 2015; Spector, 2013; Spector, Merrill, Elen, & Bishop, 2014; Venkatesh, Croteau, & Rabah, 2014).

E-learning is a fast developing area and is found useful to the learners as they can share the content of learning online without any need of meeting the end-user in person (Area & Adell, 2009; Bates, 2015; Docebo 2014, 2016). There were significant gaps in the study of E-learning, its definition and terminology as observed by Guri-Rosenblit and Gros, (2011). The reason for such gaps may be attributed to the increased complexity in the technology environment in which the new education system operates and the challenges encountered, even though there are new opportunities (Conole & Alevizou, 2010).

Since, long time, E-learning has been adopted into various areas of the academic arena in different forms. The combination of face-to-face learning and online learning with assignments is generally followed at various levels of the educational system. In the integrated E-learning scenario, online system learning is a core area and face-to-face learning is a complementary approach to maintain a good interaction between the trainer and trainee (Li-Tze & Hung, 2015). E-learning has many advantages like cost-reduction and encourages learners to be self-sustainable as per their choice of learning approaches (Li-Tze & Hung, 2015). The integration of the traditional type of homework exercises and the material in various forms which can be taken home for practice has been transformed into the distance E-learning environment through the internet (Waldner, McGorry, & Widener, 2012). One more form of E-learning can be observed in Electronic Learning Aids (ELA), other equipment which will be helpful for hands-on-training. E-learning is getting very popular due to its potential for the provision of requisite teaching stuff anywhere and at any point in time (Waldner et al., 2012).

The instructional design stems up from the art of creating training experiences which would enable the learning to be more efficient, effective and appealing (Merrill, 2012). Instructional design is a way of systematically developing instructions with the usage of learning theory for ensuring the training quality (Berger & Kam, 1996). The quality of instructional design leads to the quality of training (Carroll, 1963). Instructional design will be effective with the application of the theory of learning (Bednar, Cunningham, Duy, & Perry, 1992).

Instructional design strategies are drawn from many disciplines such as behavioral Psychology, systems theory, cognitive sciences and educational psychology (Driscoll, 2005). A well-structured instructional design process stimulates the learner's cognitive structures and makes learning effective (Gagne, 1984). It also facilitates learners' internal cognitive structures at the time of learning and increases the likelihood of successful learning. From this cognitive perspective, when designing instruction, instructional designers must articulate the goals and objectives of instruction, classify goals by the domains and types of learning outcomes, select effective strategies based on the type of learning outcome, logically sequence instructional activities, and assess expected learning outcomes (or goals) to determine the effectiveness of instruction. …

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