Academic journal article The Journal of Parapsychology

Covert Psi in Computer Solitaire

Academic journal article The Journal of Parapsychology

Covert Psi in Computer Solitaire

Article excerpt

ABSTRACT: Two series are reported in which individually tested subjects could use psi to continue playing computer solitaire and possibly win a $100 prize for the highest total solitaire score. In the spirit of Stanford's Psi-Mediated Instrumental Response (PMIR) Model, subjects were told nothing about using psi for this purpose. After each set of four games, subjects punched in their four solitaire scores, using software (ESPitaire) that interfaced with the unmodified solitaire game accompanying Microsoft Windows. Unbeknownst to the subjects, one of their ESPitaire button presses activated a pseudo-random algorithm that picked a number from 1 to 4. This number defined a "key game." If subjects received a relatively high score in the key game, they were allowed to play an additional set of four games. Immediately prior to playing solitaire, subjects completed a battery of paper-and-pencil tests including (a) Garant's self-confidence scale, (b) a component of Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale (as a less tran sparent measure of self-confidence), (c) the Australian Sheep-Goat Scale, (d) a Luckiness Questionnaire developed by Wiseman, (e) a Solitaire Questionnaire created by the author assessing frequency of past solitaire play, how "addictive" subjects found solitaire, plus confidence and desire to get a high solitaire score and win a prize in the experiment, and (f) Spielberger's State Anxiety Scale. Factor analysis of the Solitaire Questionnaire produced two factors which were labeled "addictiveness" and "confidence." The principal psi measure was the number of sets of solitaire each subject completed. In Series I, the 48 subjects averaged 2.896 sets, which is nonsignificantly higher than the expected value of 2. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.