Academic journal article E+M Ekonomie a Management

An Analysis of Factors Influencing Employee Job Satisfaction in a Public Sector

Academic journal article E+M Ekonomie a Management

An Analysis of Factors Influencing Employee Job Satisfaction in a Public Sector

Article excerpt

Introduction

Job satisfaction is one of the most researched of employee attitudes (Alotaibi, 2001; Parnell & Crandall, 2003), and is considered to be essential for job performance. On the one hand, job satisfaction may have a direct influence on employees, leading them to identify their individual goals with those of their organization, and on the other, it can lead to more efficient realization of established organizational goals. There are numerous reasons for companies to regularly conduct job satisfaction surveys: getting to know the current level of job satisfaction, better management of employee expectations, building an effective business culture or finding new ways to improve business results, and attract quality candidates. The results of such surveys may be used to increase their commitment to the organization. A positive climate among the employees encourages innovation, strengthens initiatives and enables successful execution of tasks. This means that each organization needs to build a sense of belonging and respect among all employees. Any organization can provide a context within which high levels of motivation can be achieved by providing incentives and rewards, a satisfactory working environment and opportunities for learning and growth. Managers should play a major role in motivating employees to give their best, using the motivation tools provided by the organization (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014). Companies are faced with growing competition and demand for constant flexibility and business improvement in the current global business environment. In such a business environment, a company must increasingly respect the axiom in which technological and business capital depend on human capital, that is, on working abilities, education, relevant experience and career development. Also, the level of education of the employees is in direct correlation with the possibility of assessing the factors that determine employee job satisfaction and good business results (Lekic, Bogetic, & Vidas-Bubanja, 2014, p. 29).

The complexity of the current business environment, where companies must keep track of large amounts of data, and a multiplicity of factors from the external environment--economic, political, and social--demands that managers understand changes, focus on them, and motivate all employees to respond effectively (Lekic & Rajakovic-Mijailovic, 2017, p. 236). Job satisfaction is an important dimension for the well-being of employees, but it is also an indication of organizational success (Culbertson, 2009; Korunka et al., 2003). The basic competitive advantage of every company is found in its employees. This implies that the employees are satisfied with the job they perform and that their positions correspond to their knowledge, abilities and capabilities. Job satisfaction encompasses the overall employees' attitude towards work, nature of the work itself, income and benefits, personal status in the organization, interpersonal relations, and communication with superiors, opportunities for improvement and promotion and exercising all rights from employment.

Achieving an increase in job satisfaction in public enterprises implies permanent improvement of human resources activities and new public sector management. The importance of the public sector is reflected in the fact that it enables the materialization and realization of public interests important for the society as a whole. Research shows that differences in job satisfaction between the private and public sectors can also be the result of different sources of motivation, as public sector employees are less extrinsically motivated (monetary rewards) and more motivated by working in the supportive working environment. However, public sector employees were less motivated by intrinsic factors, such as responsibility and self-development (Buelens & Van den Broeck, 2007).

Findings of Tschirhart et al. (2008) reveal a positive relationship between a preference for helping others with a desire for work in the the public sector ("public service motivation--PSM"), but do not show a significant relation between the importance of having a high salary in relation to desire for work in public sector (as it has been positively related in the business sector). …

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