Academic journal article Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

Resistance Training and Bone Mineral Density in Women: A Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials

Academic journal article Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

Resistance Training and Bone Mineral Density in Women: A Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials

Article excerpt

George A. Kelley and Kristi S. Kelley, Northern illinois University, and Zung Vu Tran, University of Colorado

It is estimated that approximately 26.2 million white, postmenopausal women in the United States have either osteopenia or osteoporosis (Melton, 1995). Recent meta-analytic work has demonstrated the positive effects of aerobic, weight bearing exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women (Kelley, 1998). Unfortunately, studies examining the effects of resistance exercise on BMD in adults have led to less than positive results. The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of resistance training on BMD in women. Studies were retrieved via (a) computerized databases (MEDLINE, Current Contents, Sport Discus, Dissertation Abstracts International), (b) reviewing the reference lists from both original and review articles, (c) hand searching selected journals, and (d) consultation with experts (Charlotte Sanborn, David Nichols, and Christine Snow). Twenty-nine studies that included a total of 94 effects sizes (femur = 53, lumbar spine = 24, radius = 17) in 572 exercise and 551 control participants met the criteria for inclusion. Using a fixed-effects model because of a lack of statistically significant heterogeneity at all sites, overall outcomes resulted in small, but statistically significant effect size changes at the lumbar spine (lumbar spine, M [plus or minus] SD = 0. …

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