Academic journal article ETC.: A Review of General Semantics

The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution

Academic journal article ETC.: A Review of General Semantics

The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution

Article excerpt

Isaacson, Walter. The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014.

The digital age was not the product of a single genius. It was largely the effort of teams that were put together in three ways: (1) through government funding and coordination--that's how the groups that created the original computers (Colossus and ENIAC) and networks (ARPANET) were organized; (2) through private enterprise--this occurred at research centers of big companies such as Bell Labs, Texas Instruments, and Google; and (3) through peers freely sharing ideas and making contributions as part of a voluntary common endeavor. But there were also significant individual contributions to the digital revolution.

Some of the prominent players in that endeavor are Alan Turing (the Turing Machine can be considered a model of the general purpose computer), Paul Allen and Bill Gates (they wrote BASIC and formed Microsoft), Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak (they launched Apple), and Jimmy Wales and Larry Singer (the creators of Wikipedia). …

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