Academic journal article Journal of Sport Behavior

Construct Validity of the Revised Anxiety Rating Scale (ARS-2)

Academic journal article Journal of Sport Behavior

Construct Validity of the Revised Anxiety Rating Scale (ARS-2)

Article excerpt

Development of the revised Anxiety Rating Scale(ARS-2), along with reporting concurrent validity coefficients were detailed in Cox and Robb (1998) The purpose of the current research was to demonstrate construct validity of the ARS-2. The ARS-2 was administered to 248 undergraduate intramural basketball players approximately IS mm before the start of a play-off game. Data were analyzed using multiple regression (MR) and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) procedures. In MR, the dependent variable (performance) was conceptualized as the participant's game score divided by the opponent game score. Regressing performance on cognitive state anxiety, somatic state anxiety, and self-confidence) yielded a significant R2 of .04 for men, F(3,184) = 2.72, p = .046. The standardized betas for cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence respectively were -.09, .00, and. 17. For the MANOVA, dependent variables were average team scores on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence as measur ed by the ARS-2. The independent variable was game outcome (win/loss). Multivariate analysis of variance procedures (MANOVA) revealed a significant relationship between game outcome and scores on the ARS-2, F(3,46) = 2.84, p = .048. Relative importance of ARS-2 components, in determining game outcome, was estimated through discriminant analysis and the calculation of structure coefficients. Structure coefficients for cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and confidence were -.58, -.07, and .93 respectively, indicating that self-confidence followed by cognitive anxiety were meaningful in predicting game outcome. These results demonstrate the construct validity of the ARS-2, in that winning and losing basketball teams can be predicted as a function of scores on the ARS-2.

The Anxiety Rating Scale (ARS) was developed by Cox, Russell and Robb (1998, 1999) as a short rating scale version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory - 2 (CSAI-2) (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990). The ARS was not merely conceptualized as a short version of the CSAI-2 with fewer items devoted to each anxiety construct, but as a single statement "Borg Like" (1973) rating scale that would allow an athlete to quickly rate how they felt in terms of precompetitive cognitive state anxiety, somatic state anxiety, and self-confidence. The concurrent validity of the ARS was established with team sport intramural athletes (Cox et al., 1998, 1999) and with individual sport intramural athletes (Cox, Reed, & Robb, 1997). Results of these investigations have shown the ARS to be moderately correlated with the subcomponents of Martens = CSAI-2 (.60 to .70).

The ARS also has been compared favorably with Krane's (1994) modification of the Mental Readiness Form (MRF-L). The MRF-L is a short version of the CSAI-2 originally developed by Murphy, Greenspan, Jowdy, and Tammen (1989). Comparative correlations between the anxiety components of the ARS and MRF-L with the cognitive and somatic state anxiety subscales of the CSAI-2 have consistently favored the ARS (Cox et al., 1997; Cox et al., 1999). As originally developed (Cox et al., 1998), the ARS measured competitive somatic state anxiety and competitive cognitive state anxiety, but not state self-confidence. The measurement of state self-confidence was later added to the ARS using stepwise multiple regression procedures to identify items to be included (Cox et al., 1999).

Most recently, the original ARS was revised and named the Anxiety Rating Scale - 2 (ARS-2). The ARS-2 exhibits stronger concurrent validity than the original scale and eliminates ambiguous wording in response statements (Cox & Robb, 1998). In developing the ARS-2, the original ARS was compared with two potential revised versions relative to concurrent validity with the CSAI-2. Reported correlations for the ARS-2 with the CSAI-2 for cognitive state anxiety, somatic state anxiety, and self-confidence were . …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.