Academic journal article Journal of Accountancy
Aggregate Approach to Partnership Causes S Corporation Taxation
One of the more confusing questions partnerships face is when to use the so-called aggregate or entity approaches. Most partnerships apply the entity approach in determining partnership income; they use the aggregate approach for other decisions. The Tax Court recently considered which approach entities outside the partnership arena--where there is even less guidance--should use.
Coggin Automotive Corp. was a C corporation that owned six C corporations. Each operated a car dealership using the LIFO inventory method. The group filed a consolidated tax return. Luther Coggin decided to restructure the subsidiary corporations to permit the general manager of each dealership to acquire an ownership interest and to provide a means for these managers to buy him or his estate out when he retired or died. To do this Coggin completed a number of transactions, including these:
* Each of the six subsidiaries transferred its assets (the dealership) to a newly formed limited partnership in exchange for a 99% limited partnership interest.
* The subsidiaries were liquidated, transferring the limited partnership interests to Coggin Automotive, which then made an S corporation election.
The IRS determined that Coggin Automotive was required to report the LIFO reserves in the partnerships as income on its final return, as required under IRC section 1363. Coggin appealed.
Result. For the IRS. The government presented two arguments for its proposed tax treatment.
Argument 1. The IRS said the restructuring was a sham and should be ignored. It also argued that Coggin Automotive should be treated as owning the LIFO inventory before and after the S election, which would result in income recognition under section 1363. In responding to this argument, the Tax Court acknowledged that, while tax savings may have been a consideration, the restructuring involved unrelated third partners and Coggin Automotive was motivated by significant nontax considerations. …