Academic journal article The Journal of Parapsychology

Connectedness between Participants in an Experiment on Distant Intention

Academic journal article The Journal of Parapsychology

Connectedness between Participants in an Experiment on Distant Intention

Article excerpt

ABSTRACT: Connectedness between participants or between participants and experimenter might be an important moderator variable for psi effects. This can be concluded from theoretical considerations as well as from empirical results. Connectedness or bondedness could be defined by an outer status as being married, maintaining a friendship, or having a family relationship. But obviously only limited conclusions toward the bondedness of 2 people can be drawn by these criteria. A literature research revealed that there is no existing instrument operationalizing connectedness or related concepts that can be applied to different kinds of relationships.

Therefore, the authors decided to construct and validate an applicable instrument by empirical means. The authors asked 18 people what the German equivalent to connectedness or bondedness ("Verbundenheit") meant to them and constructed a 60-item questionnaire from their responses. The instrument was filled in by a sample of 73 participants for validation. Nine items were excluded, and principal-component analysis on the remaining items yielded a 4-factor solution. Items loading on several factors were discarded to obtain a short form. The final questionnaire, consisting of 27 items, proves to have sufficient psychometric properties with an internal consistency of [alpha] = .93 and also a clear structure of 4 factors.

The questionnaire was given to the participants of an experiment on direct mental interaction with living systems (DMILS) with electrodermal activity as dependent variable (EDA DMILS). …

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