Academic journal article International Journal of Instructional Media

The Effect of Varied Verbal Rehearsal Strategies on Immediate and Delayed Retention of Varied Learning Objectives. (Instructional Media Initiatives: Focusing on the Educational Resources Center at Thirteen/WNET, New York, New York)

Academic journal article International Journal of Instructional Media

The Effect of Varied Verbal Rehearsal Strategies on Immediate and Delayed Retention of Varied Learning Objectives. (Instructional Media Initiatives: Focusing on the Educational Resources Center at Thirteen/WNET, New York, New York)

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Rehearsal is an integral instructional strategy in facilitating information processing when the objectives are related to increased achievement and/or performance. Rehearsal functions to maintain information in short-term memory so that the learner has the opportunity to attend more vigilantly, relate, organize, and/or make meaningful the intended information. A number of researchers have provided evidence of the importance of verbal rehearsal strategies in facilitating student achievement (Frase, 1975; Benton, Glover, & Burning 1983; King 1992; Tsai 1995). Acknowledging that different types of verbal rehearsal strategies may require students to interact of extended periods of time, time also becomes a critical issue. A number or researchers have indicated that the effectiveness of instruction is related to the quality of the rehearsal and the amount of time students spend interacting with the content (Brophy, 1981; Carroll, 1985). However, at this time there are no guidelines to tell us whether one type of verbal rehearsal strategy is as good as another for all types of educational objectives or if specific strategies are more or less effective for different types of learning outcomes.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Specifically, the purposes of this study were to: a. investigate the relative effectiveness of three types of verbal rehearsal strategies (summary lists, fill-in statements, summary writing) in facilitating student achievement of different educational objectives on immediate and delayed testing, b. examine the time on task (efficiency) of students receiving the different verbal rehearsal strategies, and determine whether an interaction existed between time on task and level of verbal rehearsal activity.

METHODS AND PROCEDURE

Two hundred forty eight college level students were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, interacted with their respective treatment booklets and then completed four criterion tests measuring different educational objectives. The four individual criterion tests were administered twice. The first testing occurred immediately following the subjects' completion of their respective treatments. Delayed testing occurred two weeks later subjects recorded their beginning and ending times on the cover of their treatment booklets. A frequency range was calculated and was used to divide time into two levels: level one 4-14 minutes was identified as low and 15-50 minutes was identified as high time on task.

The instructional script utilized in this study was based on the 1800-word instructional unit describing the parts and functioning of the human heart developed by Dwyer (1972). In this study the script was divided into six sections because restructuring complex text enhances both learning and interest in the subject content (Alexander, Kulikowich, and Jetton, 1994), and learners' lack of useful comprehension strategies that may hamper understanding of the reading material (Mayer, 1984). The six sections were The Heart's Internal Structure, The Heart's External Structure, The Veins and Axteries, The Valves of the Heart, The Blood Flow through the Heart, and The Phases of the Heart Cycle. The Revised script was used in all four treatments. The three rehearsal strategies utilized in this study were summary lists, fill-in statements, and summary writing. Each represents a more intense involvement by the learner. Reading summaries involves minimal rehearsal, fill-in requires the learner to respond by writing an answer, which is more intense that just reading and writing summaries is the most intense in that it requires the learner to generate relationships between the new concepts. Positioning of the rehearsal strategies had been determined in a pilot study utilizing item analysis to identify when students were having difficulty comprehending the instruction. Following is a description of the instructional treatments.

INSTRUCTIONAL TREATMENTS

Treatment 1. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.