Academic journal article Journal of Technology and Teacher Education

Script Creation for the Design of Lesson Plans

Academic journal article Journal of Technology and Teacher Education

Script Creation for the Design of Lesson Plans

Article excerpt

The audio-visual approach used in pedagogy, closely associated with a lock-step view of teaching in the seventies, has undergone a revolution in recent years. By way of examining how teachers can script a body of pedagogic sequences, or lessons, the different phases of the lesson planning process and how a more innovative audio-visual approach can facilitate this process are examined. First, different learning styles as perceived by learners themselves are outlined. Second, an overview of the different pedagogic approaches available to teachers is proposed. Third, the different phases of creating a lesson script are described based on a scenistic approach. Finally, two types of lesson scripts are outlined to demonstrate how one can take into account apparently contradictory teaching methods.

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One of the challenges of teaching is to ensure the learning content is not only meaningful to learners, but also has the desired educational impact on the quality of their learning. All too often, however, carefully crafted teaching/learning materials tend to be presented in such a way that they have limited impact on learners. One explanation for this, is that many teachers feel unable to convert their expert knowledge to the needs of different learners because they do not have the appropriate preparation in integrating teaching tools into their lesson plans.

This article describes a method to guide the designing of learning environments, based on the work of an interdisciplinary team of researchers and teachers at the Universite de Valenciennes (France). The first part of the article discusses research conducted at the University based on a variation of Mumford and Honey's (1992) Learning Styles Questionnaire to establish the perceived learning styles of 179 adult learners (Study 1). This is followed by giving the results of a study into learners' self-observation of their dominant learning style (Style 2). The second part of the article outlines the historical legacy of different pedagogic models through six educational paradigms, cross-referenced to nine operational aspects of teaching. To put this analysis in perspective, a study was conducted into the expressed learning modes of 575 adults learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) (Study 3).This was followed by a comparison of two dominant educational schools of thought, drawn from the work of Piaget (1975 ) and Vygotsky (1934/1962). The third part of the article explains step by step how to draw up a scripted lesson through a series of interconnected pedagogic fragments. To do this key concepts such as: lesson, document, hyperdocument, lesson script, diagese, script, scenation, scenic, and setting up the situation are defined. This process is called the scenistic approach to lesson planning. Finally, the article proposes different personalized learning tracks based on two broad types of lesson scripts with their respective advantages and disadvantages in the classroom.

FOUR BASIC LEARNING STYLES

There is consensus about the idea that a lesson based essentially on the apparent convenience or fascination for teaching tools is doomed to failure. From an educational point of view, teaching tools are not neutral, if nothing else they depend on the teacher's perceptions of learning styles and what s/he expects of learners in terms of the tools' capabilities. In this light, Mumford and Honey's (1992) questionnaire of styles (Reflector, Theorizer, Pragmatic, and Activist, see Table 1) can help understand what may be going on in the learning process. The advantage of using Mumford and Honey's (1992) questionnaire is its widespread use and cross-curricula application. In practical terms, a dominant learning style represents the likely starting point of how an individual marshals his/her resources. If this initial approach should fail, the learner might then turn to other learning modes. …

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