Academic journal article Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship

A Study of the Relationships among Person-Organization Fit and Affective, Normative, and Continuance Components of Organizational Commitment

Academic journal article Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship

A Study of the Relationships among Person-Organization Fit and Affective, Normative, and Continuance Components of Organizational Commitment

Article excerpt

Executive Summary

This research examines the relationships among Person-Organization (P-O) value congruence and three components of organizational commitment. Founded on Meyer and Allen's (1991) model of attitudinal, organizational commitment and Chatman's (1989) P-O fit framework, this study proposed that P-O fit would positively associate with affective and normative organizational commitment. Regression analysis of data from two independent samples of nontraditional university students supported this proposition.

The study also proposed that the relationships among P-O fit and affective commitment and P-O fit and normative commitment would be stronger than the relationship between P-O fit and continuance commitment. This proposition received mix support, but partial regression analysis revealed that P-O fit and organizational tenure interact to affect continuance commitment among persons who are high in organizational tenure. The presentation includes implications for managerial practice.

Introduction

Purpose of the Study

This study examines whether or not the congruence between individuals' values and the core values of their employing organizations affects their commitment to those organizations. The value congruence component of this research is rooted in the person-organization (P-O) fit framework (Chatman, 1989; O'Reilly, Chatman, & Caldwell, 1991) of organizational behavior theory. The organizational commitment component of the research is founded on Meyer and Allen's (1991) three component model of attitudinal, organizational commitment. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between P-O fit, in terms of perceived value congruence, and organizational commitment, at the individual level of analysis.

Background of the Problem

Every organization that has employees incurs costs because employees make mistakes on the job, employees miss work, and employees quit. The costs of mistakes vary across industries and tasks, but they can be substantial. The average cost of absenteeism per employee increased to $789 per year in 2002 from $755 per year in 2001 (CCH, PR Newswire, 2002). The total cost of one employee quitting can exceed the cost of his or her annual earnings (Griffeth & Hom, 2001). The American Management Association estimates that the costs of replacing employees is 30 percent of their annual salaries (Campbell, 2002). A recent Harvard University study demonstrated that almost 80 percent of turnover is attributable to hiring mistakes, including not using "profiling to determine the right fit" (Campbell). Employees who do not fit into the culture at work are more likely to quit than those who do fit in. Employees who are not committed to their organizations are also more likely to make mistakes, miss work, and quit (Meyer & Alien, 1997).

Engendering organizational commitment among employees is one way to reduce costs associated with mistakes, absenteeism, and employee turnover. This research proposes that one way organizational commitment may be engendered is through attracting employees whose values are congruent with the core values of their employing organizations.

Significance of the Study

Numerous desirable consequences have been empirically linked to organizational commitment. Committed employees perform better on the job (Konovsky & Cropanzano, 1991; Mayer & Schoorman, 1992), are less likely to experience job-related stress (Begley & Czajka, 1993; Jamal, 1990; Ostroff & Kozlowski, 1992), are less likely to be absent for "suspicious" reasons (Somers, 1995), are less likely to quit (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990; Tett & Meyer, 1993), and are more likely to be good citizens at work (Meyer, Allen, & Smith, 1993; Pearce, 1993).

According to Meyer and Alien (1991), an employee's overall organizational commitment is a combination of three different forms of commitment, affective, continuance, and normative. …

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