Academic journal article Mankind Quarterly

IQ of Mongolians

Academic journal article Mankind Quarterly

IQ of Mongolians

Article excerpt

This paper summarizes the results of two studies of the intelligence of Mongolians. Both studies were published in Chinese in Chinese journals that are difficult or impossible for Western scholars to access and read. In both studies the IQ scores of Mongolian children were compared with those of Han Chinese children living in the same communities in Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang Province. The IQ of Mongolian children was found to be approximately 5 IQ points lower than that of Han Chinese children.

Key Words: Mongolians; Han Chinese; Inner Mongolia; Xinjiang Province; Performance IQ; Verbal IQ.

Hitherto nothing has been known in Western countries of the intelligence of the Mongolians. In a compilation of some 500 studies of IQs for more than a hundred peoples and nations, it proved impossible to find any studies of the intelligence of the Mongolians (Lynn, 2006; Lynn and Vanhanen, 2006). We have now located two studies of this question by Chinese psychologists and published in Chinese. The results obtained in these studies are summarized and discussed in this paper.

Before considering these studies, we should consider what prediction can be made regarding the intelligence of the Mongolians. It has been found by Cavalli-Sforzá, Menozzi and Piazza (1994, p.78) in their genetic analysis of samples of world populations that Mongolians are most closely related to the Samoyeds (genetic distance = .2) of North East Asia. They have a more distant genetic affinity with the Japanese, Koreans, the Northern Chinese and Tibetans (genetic distance = .05), and a still more distant genetic affinity with the Inuit (Eskimos) (genetic distance = .108). In the compilation of studies of intelligence worldwide, it was not possible to provide any estimate of the intelligence of Samoyeds to whom the Mongolians are most closely related. It was estimated that the Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese (collectively designated East Asians) have a mean IQ of 105, while the Inuit (Eskimos) have a mean IQ of 91 (these IQs are calculated in relation to a British mean of 100). We should expect therefore that the mean IQ of the Mongolians would be intermediate between that of the two peoples to which they are most closely related (the East Asians and the Inuit), i.e. in the range between 91 and 105. Since the Mongolians are genetically closer to the East Asians (of China, Korea, and Japan) than to the Inuit, we should expect that their IQ would be closer to these. The genetic distance between the Mongolians and the East Asians is approximately half the genetic distance between the Mongolians and the Inuit (.05 compared with .108). We should expect therefore that the IQ difference between the Mongolians and the East Asians would also be about half the difference between the Mongolians and the Inuit. On this reasoning, the mean IQ of the Mongolians would be expected to be around 100, 5 IQ points lower than that of the East Asians, but 9 IQ points higher than their more distant relatives, the Inuit.

The two studies to be described tested the intelligence of Mongolian and Han Chinese children living in the same communities within the Mongolian Autonomous State of Xinjiang Province and Inner Mongolia. In historical times Inner Mongolia was inhabited by warring nomadic groups, but during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries the Chinese colonized the region and Han Chinese settled it as agriculturalists. Many Mongolians abandoned their nomadic lives and adopted the settled agriculture lifestyle of the Han Chinese. The result of this has been that Mongolians and Han Chinese have come to live in the same settled agricultural communities and enjoy a closely similar environment.

The results of the two studies are given in Table 1. The first study by Na and O (1994) reports the IQs of Han children (N=3213) and Mongolian (N=1481) children aged 5-14. They were tested with an adaptation of Raven's Progressive Matrices designated the Connection Raven's Test (CRT) that combined items from the Standard Progressive Matrices and the Colored Progressive Matrices and which was constructed and normed on a rural sample in Tianjin by Wang Dong. …

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