Academic journal article International Management Review

Impact of Brand Personality on PALI: A Comparative Research between Two Different Brands

Academic journal article International Management Review

Impact of Brand Personality on PALI: A Comparative Research between Two Different Brands

Article excerpt


This article examines the role of the perception of brand personality in consumers' brand preference, attitude, loyalty, and buying intent (PALI). A survey was carried out to measure, through a comparative approach, the opinions of 230 consumers of two brands: NIKE and SONY. After validating the brand personality inventory in China, a positive connotation is discovered.

[Keywords] Brand personality; NIKE; SONY; PALI; personality inventory

Theoretical Background

Amongst the existing researches about brand equity, a key focus is devoted to the image of brand. Kapferer and Thoening (1994) indicated that brand image is the set of mental representations, emotional and/or cognitive, an individual or a group of individuals ascribe to a brand or to an organization. Brand personality is one of the essential elements of brand image. What is brand personality? Plummer (1985) defines brand personality as being perceptions of consumers about a brand. The brand has a special personality profile. According to David Aaker, in fact, any brand has an identity and nature, i.e. a brand personality profile. It tends to serve a symbolic or self-expressive function (Keller, 1993). Some researchers define brand personality from its expression. Upshaw (1995) thinks that the brand personality is same as the brand image or the brand reputation. In fact, the appearance of a brand is the external personality shown by the brand, like that of a person. All external personality is something that is given to the life of a brand, and it also serves as the link between the brand and the consumers either now or in the future. The more fascinating a brand, the more emotional is the communication with the consumers. Therefore, like the idea of Macrcac (1996), communication with consumers has the characteristics of variability dependent on brand personality profiles.

Moreover, some researchers define the brand personality from its construction. Rajeev Batra (1999) thinks that the brand personality is the internal link of the whole brand image. It includes (but is not limited to) all of the relationships among the brand specialty, the brand identity, and the lifestyle and characteristics of a consumer. All such relationships create the entire image of a brand. Langmeyer (1994) thinks, a brand personality is constructed by its characteristics and the fascinating reaction process of consumers in the market environment, exactly like that the personality of a person is based on his or her heredity and his or her environment. Their researches show that the image of the product or the service can be measured independently, and it has no relation to the target consumers.

Aaker (1997) considered that brand personality represents the set of human characteristics associated with a brand. For example, Absolut Vodka was described as a cool, hip, contemporary 25-year old man. The personality traits associated with a brand, such as those associated with an individual, tend to be relatively enduring and distinct. Among all brand researches, little has been done based on the Chinese market, and far less is found in the perceptions of consumers about their preference, attitude, loyalty, and buying intent. Aaker (1997) insisted that one possibility of brand attribute information as brand personality, used as a heuristic cue, might influence consumer attitudes. The brand personality framework and scale developed by Aaker have important applications for researchers examining the perceptions of brand personality across cultures. Nonetheless, the scale might not be appropriate for measuring brand personality in different cultural contexts.

Research Hypotheses

Brand personality is different among different brands. It is important to distinguish brand differences in the first place, since brand personality influences the perceptions of consumers. The perception of a brand personality is considered an expressive valuation of a brand in the mind of consumers. …

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