Academic journal article Mankind Quarterly

Race Differences in Intelligence, Creativity and Creative Achievement

Academic journal article Mankind Quarterly

Race Differences in Intelligence, Creativity and Creative Achievement

Article excerpt

Race differences in intelligence are generally consistent with differences in the historical record of creative achievement in the arts and sciences. The North East Asians (classical Mongoloids) and the European Caucasoids have the highest intelligence and the greatest creative achievements, while other races have lower IQs and lesser creative achievements. There is however an anomaly: North East Asians have a higher IQ than Europeans, but their creative achievements have been less. Evidence is presented showing that the North East Asians have lower creativity measured by openness to experience. It is proposed that this explains their lower creative achievement

Key Words: Race; Intelligence; Creativity; Creative Achievement; Openness to experience.

IQs for the major races have been compiled from approximately 550 studies and are given in Lynn (2006). The metric in this compilation is based on a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15 for Britain. Assessed by this metric, the estimated average IQ of the North East Asians (the Classical Mongoloids of China, Korea and Japan) is 105, the European Caucasoids 99, the South Asian and North African Caucasoids 84, South East Asians 87, the Native American Indians 86, the sub-Saharan Africans 67, the Australian Aborigines 62 and Kalahari Bushmen 54. These race differences in IQ are highly correlated with differences in scores on standardized international assessments of mathematics and science proficiency obtained by 9- and 13-year-old students, described in Lynn & Vanhanen (2006) and extended in Lynn and Mikk (2007) and in Lynn, Meisenberg, Mikk & Williams (2007). In these studies the North East Asians do much better than the Europeans, who in turn do better than the South Asians, the South East Asians and the sub-Saharan Africans.

In general, these IQ differences are consistent with the contributions the races have made to creative achievements in science, mathematics, technology, and the arts documented by Murray (2003) in his encyclopedic compilation given in his book Human Accomplishment. Although he barely mentions the word race, Murray shows that the North East Asians and the Europeans are the two races that have made most of the contributions to creative achievement, with some lesser contribution from the South Asians and North Africans, the South East Asians, and the Native American Indians. Very litde contribution has been made by the sub-Saharan Africans, the Australian Aborigines and the Kalahari Bushmen.

Despite these general consistencies, there is an inconsistency between the North East Asians' high IQs and strong school performance in mathematics and science, and their lesser creative achievements in the arts and sciences, as compared with the Europeans. Although the North East Asians have a higher IQ and greater abilities in mathematics and science in school, Murray (2003) shows that the Europeans have made more contributions to creative achievement. Murray suggests that the North East Asians and the Europeans made about equal progress in technological creative achievement up to around the year 1600 AD. The Chinese invented paper and printing, gunpowder and the magnetic compass well before the Europeans, and had a well-developed mathematics. On the other hand, the North East Asians did not make the fundamental advances in science and mathematical theory that were made by the Europeans. Murray writes that "China had no Euclid, no body of mathematical knowledge that started from first premises...During the Song (960-1279 AD) Chinese astronomers correctly demonstrated the causes of solar and lunar eclipses. But again there was no theory, no Ptolemaic characterization of the universe. The Chinese simply discovered certain things" (pp.38-9). The same can be said of the Japanese of whom Murray writes that "even today, it is commonly observed that Japan's technological feats far outweigh its slender body of original discoveries" (p.399). …

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