Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

The Influences of Personality and Motivation on Exercise Participation and Quality of Life

Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

The Influences of Personality and Motivation on Exercise Participation and Quality of Life

Article excerpt

The major purpose of this study was to identify the effects of personality on individual exercise motivation and exercise participation, which then influences quality of life. A comprehensive model was developed, based on an extensive literature review, and empirically tested using members of fitness centers from Taiwan, Europe and the United States as respondents. The results indicate that individuals with a positive personality tend to have higher levels of exercise motivation and exercise participation. Personality and exercise participation then impacted on individuals' quality of life, in terms of physical health improvement, psychological health improvement, and sexual satisfaction. The study results offer valuable suggestions not only to marketing managers of fitness centers but also to government officers to promote health and quality of life through stimulating exercise motivation and exercise participation.

Keywords: personality, exercise motivation, exercise participation, quality of life.

A great deal of evidence has demonstrated that regular exercise activities can improve physical and psychological health (Frederick & Ryan, 1993; Kilpatrick, Hebert, & Bartholemew, 2005; Palmer, 2005; Young, Gittelsohn, Charleston, Felix-Aaron, & Appel, 2001). However, the underlying antecedents and consequential variables that influence exercise participation behavior remain unclear. Various theoretical models have been adopted to explain individuals' exercise behavior. Among others, the theory of planned behavior (TPB) has been applied more frequently to predict exercise behavior. TPB asserts that individuals' exercise behavior can be predicted from their intention (including attitudes and subjective norms) to perform the behavior and their perceptions of control over the behavior (Hagger, Chatzisarantis, & Biddle, 2002; Rhodes, Blanchard, & Matheson, 2006). Attitudes are the individuals' overall evaluations of performing the exercise behavior, whereas subjective norms are the social pressures perceived by individuals to influence whether or not they perform the exercise behavior. Perceived behavioral control (PBC) is the perception of the level of difficulty of performing the exercise behavior. Although TPB are robust, many scholars ask that additional variables be considered in the context of physical activity, including die roles of self-efficacy and past exercise, to increase its explainability (Hagger et al., 2002; Rhodes et al., 2006).

In addition to TPB, personality traits have been regarded as critical factors for exercise motivation, participation, and quality of life. Recent studies by Ingledew, Markland, and Sheppard (2003), and Lochbaum and Lutz (2005) have indicated that the five personality factors (i.e., emotional stability, extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience) have a positive influence on exercise motivation and participation. Other studies by Evans (1997), Kempen, Jelicic, and Ormel (1997), and Kimweli and Stilwell (2002) confirm that personality traits are associated with the quality of life and subjective well-being. However, previous studies do not evaluate die combined effects of TPB and personality theory on exercise motivation and quality of life. These issues are thus subject to further investigation.

Furthermore, self-determination theory has been adopted to explain the influences of individuals' personality on their exercise participation (Deci & Ryan, 2000). According to self-determination theory, there are three innate psychological needs (i.e., needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy) which account for me basis of individuals' self-motivation and personality and for the conditions mat influence their behavior. It is suggested mat conscientious individuals are able to feel self-determined because exercise satisfies their need for competence. In the same vein, openness (inversely associated whh external regulation) may reflect me need for autonomy. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.