Academic journal article Journal of Cultural Diversity

How New Mexico Licensed Registered Nurses Gained Cultural Self-Efficacy and Their Stories

Academic journal article Journal of Cultural Diversity

How New Mexico Licensed Registered Nurses Gained Cultural Self-Efficacy and Their Stories

Article excerpt

Abstract: The cultural self-efficacy of licensed registered nurses in New Mexico has been reported by this author in two previous articles (Hagman, 2004 & 2006). The Cultural Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES) developed by Bernal and Froman (1987) was used to quantify New Mexico RN's knowledge of cultural concepts, skills and life patterns of five ethnic groups (White-non Hispanic, Hispanic, African American, Asian American and Native American). Methods used included quantitative survey results and written responses to two open-ended questions yielding both quantitative and qualitative data. This article provides details of the qualitative data which revealed how the RNs in that study gained their reported level of self-efficacy and the stories they shared. Data analysis revealed four major themes; experience, education, travel, and military service. Examples are provided for each theme. Participants also shared cultural stories/anecdotes

Background

The cultural self-efficacy of licensed registered nurses in New Mexico has been reported earlier in this publication (Hagman, 2004; Hagman, 2006). A pilot study was conducted to determine the level of self-efficacy of RNs in New Mexico, to test the Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES) and to determine the feasibility of a larger study. The pilot revealed that the small convenience sample of RNs was moderately efficacious in caring for patients of three ethnic groups. However, they felt that the CSES was missing ethnicities present in New Mexico. The suggestions of pilot participants led to a revision (addition of two ethnic groups, White non-Hispanic and Native American) of the CSES with input from its authors. The larger study involved random selection and survey of 398 RNs licensed and living in New Mexico. Similar to the pilot, the RNs in the larger study were moderately efficacious in caring for the five ethnic groups. This article provides the details of the qualitative openended questions asked of each survey respondent. Completion of these two questions was not required for inclusion in the quantitative data analysis and the number and percent of participants who responded is smaller - 66 and 16.5% respectively.

Dr. P. Duryea influenced this researcher by suggesting the addition of qualitative questions when, in his Research Design course (personal communication, July, 1999), he stressed expanding upon quantitative research results by asking who, what, when and most importantly why did something happen or did a participant respond in a particular way. Dr. Duryea stressed that by adding qualitative data, the results provide a clearer picture of the answers to the research questions asked.

Traditional science has its foundation in quantitative research methods (Streubert & Carpenter, 1995). Phenomena are researched, measured, calculated, analyzed, replicated, theorized about and knowledge is gained. Some scientists even believe that if a phenomenon cannot be measured then the importance and the existence of the phenomenon may be called into question (Streubert & Carpenter, 1995). Examination of realities that may not be objective, reducible, quantifiable, and replicable is also important. "With the belief that science should inform the lives of people who interact and function in society, all parts of reality must be examined" (Streubert & Carpenter, 1995, p. 3).

Qualitative research has common characteristics that are different from quantitative research. These characteristics include: (1) belief in multiple realities, (2) commitment to identifying an approach to understanding that will support the phenomenon being studied, (3) commitment to the participants' point of view, (4) conduct of research in a way that does not disturb the natural context of the phenomena of interest, (5) obvious participation of the researcher in the research project and (6) dissemination of the results of the research by reporting in a literary fashion enriched by the participants' narrative (Streubert & Carpenter, 1995). …

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