Academic journal article Tamara : Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science

Re-Enfranchising the World: What Is the Price of Peace and Security?

Academic journal article Tamara : Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science

Re-Enfranchising the World: What Is the Price of Peace and Security?

Article excerpt

ABSTRACT

This article engages in the analysis of the 9/11 Commission Report. In the wake of the attacks, the government of the USA examined and adjusted its defense strategies and foreign policies. Less time has been spent reflecting on the root causes of terrorism and how and why the United States came to be hated by some individuals and groups so much that they would kill thousands of innocent people and what alternatives to the Bush administration's policies exit such that the United States (and other economically-developed states) can do to overcome this danger.

"Tuesday, September 11, 2001, dawned temperate and nearly cloudless in the eastern United States. " Opening of The 9/11 Commission Report[1]

With this statement, the 9/11 Commission begins its final report on the "facts and circumstances relating to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 "[2]. The sheer magnitude and audacity of the attacks on major icons of American economic and military strength that killed 2,752 people shocked both the citizens of the United States and people around the world.

In the wake of these attacks, the government of the United States is examining and adjusting its defense strategies and foreign policy. Its response in this post-9/11 world has been the creation of the new Department of Homeland security and a more proactive and determined approach to military engagement with terrorist organizations and foreign states believed to be supporting or harboring these organizations. In essence, the Bush administration's response to 9/11 has been power politics (which relies on threats, economic embargoes, and military intervention) to impose its agenda on the world and the American people. Less time has been spent reflecting on (1 ) the root causes of terrorism and how and why the United States came to be hated by some individuals and groups so much that they would kill thousands of innocent people and (2) what alternatives to the Bush administration's policies exist such that the United States (and other economically-developed states) can develop and implement new, alternative foreign policy regimes that look for peaceful means that enhance global security and reduce anti-American and anti-Western sentiment.

President Bush said he was shocked and confused to learn that there is a high level of anti-American feeling and anger at the United States around the world. I was surprised that President Bush was so surprised[3].

The question I start from is not why did 9/11 happen but why had it not happened sooner. The United States has been the target of numerous terrorist attacks by al-Qaeda in the decade leading up to 9/11 including coordinated attacks on American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, an attack on the Khobar Towers, an attack on the U.S.S. Cole in the waters of Yemen, and, perhaps most significantly, the 1993 attempt to blow-up the World Trade Center. Usama Bin Laden has repeatedly published fatwas and given public interviews calling on Muslims to attack the United States[4]. In addition to Islamist terrorist attacks on the U.S., there have also been several domestic acts of terrorism. The most significant were the truck bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, the anthrax attacks that remain unsolved, the Unabomber, the Olympic bombing, the D.C. snipers, and a number of attacks on abortion clinics[5].

The Bush and Clinton administrations and the media have failed to link the underlying causes of Islamist and American domestic terrorism. The lslamists are represented as at war with the U.S., with the civilized world, or with freedom - an apocalyptic vision - and the product of "eccentric and violent ideas sprouting in the fertile ground of political and social turmoil" (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, 2004; The White House, 2003). Domestic, American terrorists, on the other hand, are represented as psychologically disturbed individuals or small groups. …

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