Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology

The Innovative Elements in Non-Formal Education of Bangladesh: Perspective of Income Generating Programmes for Poverty Alleviation

Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology

The Innovative Elements in Non-Formal Education of Bangladesh: Perspective of Income Generating Programmes for Poverty Alleviation

Article excerpt

ABSTRACT

This paper attempts to explore the innovative elements of non-formal education of Bangladesh in terms of its contribution towards poverty alleviation through income generating programmes. A survey of the beneficiaries, focus group discussions, and documentary review are used as research methods. This study selects one NGO through examining relevant NGOs in term of non-formal education linked income generating programmes and then finds out the innovative elements of that NGO by in-depth study. It shows that most of the NGOs have programmes for socio-economic development but a very few of them have innovative elements in non-formal education linked income generating programmes for poverty alleviation.

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

Attacking poverty has become an international concern for placing in the paradigm of 'education and learning for sustainable development' in consideration of the reality that almost half of the world's population live in poverty. The world has deep poverty amidst plenty (World Bank, 2000). Based on the recognition that formal education programme has failed to become adequately responsive to the needs, particularly of the poorer/disadvantaged sections of people, non-formal education programme has evolved in various form as a strategic intervention for poverty alleviation.

In recent years, non-formal education has become an important phenomenon in developing countries like Bangladesh where many international, national and local NGOs are providing nonformal education for increasing income generating programmes for the poor and disadvantaged groups. The general objective of this paper is to identify and examine innovative aspects of nonformal education programme having demonstrated potentials and scope for poverty alleviation through income generation. Specifically, the paper has sought to identify the scope and the role of non-formal education contributing to income generation; to identify innovative approaches of nonformal education linked to income generation; to assess the impact of pilot /experimental income generation programme under non-formal education as a useful contribution to human resource development; and to make recommendation for policy formulation to build up essential links between non-formal education and income generation programmes for poverty alleviation.

Bangladesh is classified as one of the poorest countries of the world. Data published by UNESCO rank Bangladesh in the thirty-first position out of thirty-five countries for which GDP data could be given. The national literacy rate has increased significantly but 34% adult people are still illiterate (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, 2002). The labour force, with the growth of population, will continue to grow for about 50 years more till the population becomes stationery. It is estimated that the labour force will grow from 55 million to 100 million over the next 20 years. The country has 6.6 million child labour force (aged 5-14), but in reality the number may be higher. Over 4 million of these children work in agriculture in rural areas and in informal sector in urban areas. The poverty line (daily intake of 2122 K. Cal a day) reveals that 36% people live below the poverty line. Thirty seven percent are rated most vulnerable, and forty six vulnerable (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, 2000). The present trend of the socioeconomic conditions in Bangladesh in terms of literacy rate, population growth, per capita income, and employment situation are improving but inequitable distribution of resources (e. g., income, land) deteriorate the situation. Twenty percent people has only 8.7 percent share of total income while the highest 20% people has 42.8 percent share of total income (The World Bank, 2000) and 84% people acquired small farm 0.05-2.49 acre land (Planning Commission, 1998).

As in many other countries of the world, non-formal education programmes have been organized in Bangladesh, first, by NGOs and subsequently by the Government at a larger scale. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.