Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

A Two-Factor Model of Achievement Motivation

Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

A Two-Factor Model of Achievement Motivation

Article excerpt

Keywords: achievement motivation, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation.

Cassidy and Lynn (1989) synthesized an achievement motivation measure based on earlier scales. Their final measure assessed seven facets of motivation: Acquisitiveness for material wealth, Dominance, Competitiveness, Status Aspiration, Pursuit of Excellence, Work Ethic, and Mastery. Others (e.g., Sansone & Harackiewicz, 2000) have found that people are driven by two general motivational forces: intrinsic motivation is performing an activity for the pleasure inherent in the activity, whereas extrinsic motivation is driven by external factors. We hypothesized that Cassidy and Lynn's seven measures would cluster around intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.

Cassidy and Lynn's scale was completed by 327 students, with responses coded into their seven motivation measures. A factor analysis with varimax rotation showed a clear two-factor solution (variance explained, 58%). As expected, the status aspiration, dominance, competitiveness, and acquisitiveness measures loaded together on factor one, which was labeled extrinsic motivation. Similarly, mastery, work ethic, and excellence loaded only on the second factor, labeled intrinsic motivation.

The specific facets of achievement motivation fit within a broader model of two meta-factors, intrinsic and extrinsic achievement motivation. It is important to recognize these broad categories of motivations, while also acknowledging that more specific facets may be important in particular applications. …

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