Blue-and-White Porcelains were once the mainstream art in Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, which were profuse in decoration themes and adept in decoration techniques, thus, being the perfect integration of sculpture, color, technique and artistic conception.
Keywords: Blue-and-White Porcelain, Art Deco
Résumé: La porcelaine bleue -blanche était une fois l'art traditionnel dans la province de Yunan. Les dynasties des Ming et des Qing, qui étaient abondantes en thèmes de décoration et adeptes en les techniques de décoration, sot donc l'intégration parfaite de sculpture, de couleurs, des techniques et de conceptions artistiques.
Mots-clés: la porcelaine bleue -blanche, Art Déco
Blue-and-White Porcelain is a once-fired underglaze porcelain at a high temperature of about 1300°C after the porcelain body is colored with cobalt and painted with clear ceramic glaze. Underglaze cobalt will take on blue when it is fired at high temperature, and thus, being called "Blue-and-White" (Gao Yingzi, 2000). Since Blue-and-White Porcelain was created in Tang Dynasty, it became the mainstream porcelain in Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, and even the carrier of oriental civilization for CHINA - "A Country Famed for Her Porcelain".
1. THE DECORATION THEMES OF BLUE-AND-WHITE PORCELAIN
The decoration themes of Blue-and-White Porcelain covers a wide range, including daily life, historical myth, legend, nature creature, tree, flower and fruit, garden, mountain and river, dragon and phoenix, cloud and water, character pattern and religious pattern, etc.
1.1 TREE, FLOWER & FRUIT: this group of designs are usually loquat, litchi, grape, guava, cucurbit, lotus, flat peach, peony, lotus flower, chrysanthemum, plum blossom, banana, bamboo, leading an ox, lily, camellia, China rose, glossy ganoderma, etc., all of which are endued with auspicious moral, for example, lily symbolizes "Love For All Seasons", twin lotus represents "Love Between Two" and so on.
1.2 DAILY LIFE: such as netting, farming, herding, swinging lady, frolic children, etc., which were mainly created during Jiajing Reign and Wanli (Shen Zong's reign) in Ming Dynasty by folk kilns. The scenes of people's daily lives, such as "Chanting and Appreciating the Spring Scenery in Countryside", "Sitting Alone to Sense the Wind Through the Pines", "Urging the Guest to Stay in a Rainy Day" and so on, are vividly reproduced in these peaceful, beautiful and elegant pictures, which reflect people's rich imagination and expectation for happiness,
1.3 NATURE CREATURES: This group of designs include wild goose, crane, goose, rooster, mandarin duck, magpie and peacock; and quadrupeds like tiger, deer, elephant and rabbit; insects like bee, butterfly, dragonfly and rearhorse; fish like carp, shrimp and crab, as well as some imaginative animals such as kylin and hippocampus, and dynamic dragon and phoenix and different patterns of dragons, phoenixes, clouds, water and so on.
1.4 RELIGIOUS CHARACTER PATTERNS: In these patterns, age-old branches are twisted into different Chinese characters that have auspicious meanings, some of which are quoted from surra, sanscrit, Tibetan or palindrome. The decoration themes that are related to religious doxy are usually some symbolic patterns, such as "Seven Treasures", "Eight Treasures", "Flaming Pearl", etc.
2.THE ART DECO TECHNIQUES OF BLUE-AND-WHITE PORCELAIN
The blue patterns on porcelain body are drawn with cobalt and are once-fired designs after coated by glaze. This technique has broken through the traditional decoration methods like carving, lining, printing, embossed sculpture, etc., and absorbed other crafts in cloth and gold plate decorations, which has achieved a clean and elegant decoration effect(Liang Rensheng, 1991). The decorations in Tang, Song, Yuan and Ming dynasties are mainly patterns, which are to achieve an ornamental purpose. But in Qing Dynasty, most of them are brushworks, many of which may be imitating works. …