Regarded leader's traits as independent variables, performance as dependent variables, organizational culture as control variables, this paper found that under the innovation-orientation culture, the tuition type of perception type, risking-taking , and artistic subscale significantly and positively correlated with performance. Under the support-orientation culture, the affiliation motive and the ability of understanding diction have a significantly positive correlation with performance. Under rule-orientation culture, the power motive, the conventional subscale, and the ability of analyzing datum have a significantly positive correlation with performance. Thus, the hypothesis of the leader's trait theories based on context proposed in this paper is validated.
Key words: traits, organizational culture, leadership
Résumé: En considérant les traits de leaders comme variables indépendantes, la performance comme variable dépendante, la culture organisationnelle comme variable de controle, l'article présent trouve que, sous la culture d'innovation-orientation, le type de frais scolaires du type de perception, le risque-recette et le subscale artistique se rapportent significativement et catégoriquement à la performance. Sous la culture de support-orientation, le motif d'affiliation et l'aptitude de compréhension du langage a une corrélation évidente avec la performance. Sous la culture de règle-orientaion, la force motrice, le subscale conventionnel et la capacité d'analyse des données a un lien effectif avec la performance. Ce faisant, les hypothèses des théories de triats de leaders basées sur le contexte dans l'article s'avèrent fondées.
Mots-Clés: traits, culture organisationnelle, direction
In today's dynamic world, leaders play an important role in every organization. Leaders are needed to challenge themselves, to create visions of the future, and to inspire their followers to achieve the visions.
There has been extensive research examining the issues of leadership. Since the 1930s, leadership theory has been the focus in the fields of psychology and management science. Researchers have focused not only on the difference between leaders and no leaders, but also on the difference between leadership and management, on the relationship between leaders and general managers, and especially on the issue of leaders themselves and the effectiveness of leadership. In the earlier studies of trait, Gibb (1947), Jenkins (1947), and Stogdilla (1948) etc. recognized several characteristics that were associated with leader's performance. The studies of traits identified a large number of personal characteristics such as gender, height, physical energy and appearance as well as psychological traits and motives such as authoritarianism, intelligence, need for achievement, and need for power. As these studies were intended to identify a set of traits that would always differentiate leaders from followers and effective from ineffective leaders, the search failed.
Behavior theories describe the behavior of individuals in position of authority, and relating these descriptions to various criteria of leader effectiveness. There are three influential studies from various groups of investigators, including Robert Bales and his associates at Harvard (Bales, 1954), members of the Ohio State Leadership Center (Stogdill^sup b^ & Coons, 1957), and members of the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan (Kahn & Katz, 1953; Likert, 1961; Mann, 1965). The behavioral theories succeed in identifying consistent relationships between leadership behavior and group performance. But the discusses on behavioral theories still lack of considering situational factors.
Now, researchers mainly studied the effectiveness of leadership according to the contingency idea. By considering both of the leader's behavior and context, they researched how leaders should do in order to obtain good performance under a certain context. …