A United States sample of 166 transgender adults including 50 male-to-females (MTFs), 52 female-to-males (FTMs), and 64 genderqueers (neither completely female nor completely male), were surveyed about identity development, levels of disclosure of transgender status, and relationship to community. There was no difference among transgender groups in age of first experiencing oneself differently from assigned birth sex. MTFs first identified as other than their assigned sex earlier than FTMs. However, they did not present themselves to others in a gender-congruent way until much later than FTMs. MTFs were less likely to disclose their gender identity to their parents than were FTMs. Disclosure of assigned birth sex was more common among younger participants. There was no difference in the extent to which individuals felt connected to the transgender community. Genderqueers felt more connected to the lesbian, gay, and bisexual community than did MTFs or FTMs. Implications for health care professionals and transgender communities are discussed.
Received 29 February 2008
Accepted 2 June 2008
The present study was planned as a large United States sample of people who identify as transgender. Comparisons were planned across the following groups: those assigned male at birth who experience themselves as female (MTFs)1, those assigned female at birth who experience themselves as male (FTMs), and those who do not identify as male or female. Though people who do not identify as men or women use many terms of self-identity (to be described later), we chose to use the term 'genderqueer' as this was used most frequently (by 62.5% of respondents).
We also compared these three trans groups with their non-transgender brothers and sisters. Using siblings as comparison groups was important given the lack of prior research comparing trans with non-trans individuals. For results comparing these five groups on demographics, social support, and violence and harassment, see Factor and Rothblum (in press). Not surprisingly, we found the three trans groups to experience significantly less social support from their family than their non-transgender brothers and sisters. Transgender people were also more likely to experience a variety of types of harassment and discrimination than their nontransgender sisters and brothers.
In addition, we explored the nuances of diverse trans people's gender expressions, experiences, and identities, and that is the focus of the present paper. Thus, we compare MTFs, FTMs, and genderqueers in the current socio-historical moment. We examined the extent to which these three trans groups participated in transgender communities and the extent to which they disclosed their transgender identity to others.
Gender diversity is a longstanding interest of the first author. The initial ideas for this project emerged from her gender experiences and sensibilities. The dissonance she encountered between her gendered self and the ways in which gendered selves have been described (and not described) in the psychological literature was a primary motivation for undertaking the study. The second author has been researching lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) communities for many years and developed a sibling comparison method that she has utilised with LGB individuals. In an effort to develop further insight into contemporary LGB(T)/Queer communities, she suggested extending this method to trans people and served as the dissertation advisor of the first author.
Theoretical and historical background
It has been over thirty years since 'homosexuality' was removed as a mental illness from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 1973 (American Psychiatric Association 1980). Yet, the current DSM still includes the diagnosis of 'gender identity disorder' (GID), defined as a 'strong and persistent crossgender identification (American Psychiatric Association 2000:581). …