This study determined Louisiana secondary business teachers' adoption of technology for use in instruction. Teachers have increased their technology adoption for use in instruction over the past five years, although they still do not have access to the technology they need to utilize technology fully. Moderate barriers exist that prevent them from integrating technology into their teaching although the technology integration barriers have decreased over the past five years. Teachers are experiencing some technology anxiety, which appears to be a decline since 2002. Technology availability, barriers to technology integration, and years teaching experience are strong predictors of their adoption of technology in instruction.
Technology continues its accelerated rate of change as it influences all facets of society including personal lives and careers. Technology affects business teachers more than most teachers. They strive to remain on the cutting edge, both in technology use and in what they teach. However, in the last five years, have business teachers' changed their adoption of technology for use in instruction? Do technology anxiety and training explain business teachers' technology usage? Do business teachers perceive that barriers continue to exist that prevents their use of technology?
The benchmark technology adoption study was conducted as a part of the authors' study of technology integration in 2002. The study addressed all four levels of the Kotrlik-Redmann Technology Integration Model (©2002); namely, Exploration, Experimentation, Adoption, and Advanced Integration. The current study focuses on whether business teachers have changed their adoption of instructional technology.
The study's purposes were: 1) to determine secondary business teachers ' adoption of technology for use in instruction, and 2) to determine if technology adoption and perceived barriers to technology adoption as reported in 2007 differed from the 2002 study. In this trend study, different people from the same population were surveyed at different times (five years apart) (Ary, Jacobs & Razavieh, 2002). The objectives were to describe:
1) respondents' characteristics;
2) the extent to which technology has been adopted in teaching-learning;
3) teachers' perceptions of barriers to technology adoption;
4) the technology anxiety of teachers;
5) if teachers' adoption of technology, perceived barriers to technology integration for use in instruction, and technology anxiety had changed over the last five years; and
6) if selected variables explain technology adoption levels.
One technology enhancement initiative is the Enhancing Education Through Technology Act of 2001 which is Title II, Part D, of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001). Resources to integrate technology in instruction were provided under this legislation to improve academic achievement through the use of technology (II. D. Sec. 2402, b, 1). A second initiative is the National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) for teachers (International Society for Technology in Education, 2004). By 2004, almost all of the states ". . . had adopted, adapted, aligned with, or otherwise referenced at least one set of standards in their state technology plans, certification, licensure, curriculum plans, assessment plans, or other official state documents" (p. 1).
Concurrently, additional investments are being made in instructional technology. The National Center for Education Statistics reported that Internet access has increased from 35% in 1994 to 94% in 2005, and the ratio of students to instructional computers with Internet access has dropped from 12.1 to 1 in 1998 to 3.8 to 1 in 2005 (Wells & Lewis, 2006).
Trend studies of business educators' use of technology have not been conducted, although technology use studies in secondary education exist. …