Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Assessment of the Entrepreneurial Characteristics and Intentions among Academics

Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Assessment of the Entrepreneurial Characteristics and Intentions among Academics

Article excerpt

Abstract

This paper focused on assessing the entrepreneurial characteristics, intentions and motivation among academics. The data covers survey study of 120 sample size drawn of academics from an institution of higher learning in Ogun State, Nigeria. Both descriptive and statistical tool were used to analyze the data collected. The results from the correlation analysis revealed that there is a strong relationship between the entrepreneurial characteristics and intentions to start up an enterprise among academics. Based on the findings, it was recommended that there is need to organize empowerment programmes and provide an enabling environment that will motivate the academics into entrepreneurial actions.

Key Words: Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Characteristics and Intentions

Introduction

'Entrepreneurial' as a construct has become a common term used to describe people who are innovative, creative and open to change (Reimers- Hild, King, Foster, Fritz, Waller and Wheeler, 2005). Entrepreneurship is a process of identification of a business opportunity in one's immediate environment, combining together resources and establishing an enterprise for the production and distribution of product(s) or service that emanated from such process. Entrepreneurial individuals have the ability to identify opportunities and marshal resources to achieve their goals (Stevenson and Gumpert, 1983; O'Connor and Fiol, 2002). Entrepreneurship as an important concept for economic development requires the identification of individuals in all spheres of life with entrepreneurial characteristics (personalities) and the intention of venturing into business either immediately or in the new future.

Many researchers such as Brockhaus, (1980); Koh (1996); Shepherd and Douglas (1997) having looked at certain characteristics that are associated with entrepreneurship and suggested risk taking propensity, locus of control, creativity and innovation, ability to set goal, proactiveness, desire for independence and need for achievement as entrepreneurial values, attributes, and characteristics that can be associated to entrepreneurial behavour but few of these works have explained the existence of this relationship among academics. This paper therefore aimed to assess the entrepreneurial characteristics and intentions that exist among the academics using a particular private university in Ogun State, Nigeria as our case study. The name of the institution is kept confidential for official reasons. In this study, the following research questions were addressed; do academics possess entrepreneurial identity? Will their entrepreneurial characteristics lead to intentions to start up an enterprise in the future? Is there any linkage between their entrepreneurial characteristics and intentions? This study has the potential to assist in motivating more academics to participate in entrepreneurial activities. .

Literature Review

Entrepreneurial Characteristics

Entrepreneurial characteristics have been identified to be the central core for the behaviour and performance of entrepreneurs (Koh, 1996).

All entrepreneurs possess some peculiar characteristics required for carrying out successful entrepreneurial activities. These characteristics may include desire for achievement (McClelland 1961); locus of control (Rotter 1966); risk taking propensity (Brockhaus, 1980); proactiveness Grant (1996), tolerance for ambiguity Betaman and Grant, (1993), creativity (Drucker, 1985) and they have become the focus of recent researches and this paper aims to explore the connections between the entrepreneurial characteristics and entrepreneurial intentions among the Nigerian academics.

H1 Entrepreneurial characteristics such as; desire for independent, need for achievement, risk taking, internal locus of control, self confidence, proactiveness creativity and innovation are not strong attributes towards the intentions of the academics to become entrepreneurs

Entrepreneurial Intentions

Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) cited in Ajzen (1991); Bird (1988); Katz and Gartner (1988); Krueger and Brazeal (1994) cited in Crant (1996); Shepherd and Douglas (1997) used word intentions to investigate and interpret future action. …

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