Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

The Scales of Psychological Well-Being: A Study of Validity and Reliability

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

The Scales of Psychological Well-Being: A Study of Validity and Reliability

Article excerpt


This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Scales of Psychological Well-being (Ryff, 1989a). The sample of the study consists of 1214 university students. Results of language equivalency showed that correlations between the Turkish and English forms were .94 for autonomy, .97 for environmental mastery, .97 for personal growth, .96 for positive relations with others, .96 for purpose in life, and .95 for self-acceptance. The total variance explained was 68% and factor loadings ranged from .30 to .94. Fit index values of the model were RMSEA=.072, NFI=.97, IFI= .98, RFI=.97, CFI=.98, GFI=.93, and SRMR=.062. Internal consistencies varied between .87 and .96 and test-retest reliability coefficients ranged between .78 and .97 for six subscales. These results demonstrate that the scale is a valid and reliable instrument.

Key Words

Psychological Well-being, Validity, Reliability, Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

Psychological research has generally focused on pathology, unhappiness, and human suffering (Diener & Seligman, 2002; Seligman & Chikczentmihalyi, 2000). As social sciences tried to better understand the human being, it became evident that positive aspects of psychological functioning were misunderstood and perhaps most importantly understudied. In order to empirically examine positive aspects of human functioning, an operational definition of psychological well-being had to be established. This was a major undertaking, because like most psychological constructs, psychological well-being is multifaceted and encompasses multiple dimensions (Christopher, 1999). Part of the difficulty in grasping a profound understanding of the concept of psychological well-being is the wide variety of concepts used interchangeably in the literature. For example, well-being; happiness (Bradburn, 1969); life satisfaction (Wood, Wylie, & Sheator, 1969); quality of life; mental or emotional health; subjective well-being; and mood and affect (Kozma, Stones, & McNeil, 1991) have been used synonymously with psychological well-being throughout the literature. Stull (1987), however, stated that even though these concepts are related, they are not identical.

Various approaches to conceptualizing well-being have been proposed. Some have suggested that well-being results from achieving a goal (Diener, 1984) while other perspectives hold that happiness results from engaging in interesting and challenging activities (Chekola, 1975). Other conceptions of psychological well-being have included life satisfaction (Pavot & Diener, 1993; Shin & Johnson, 1978) and the experience of positive affect and an absence of negative affect (Pavot & Diener, 1993; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). Despite the difficulty in defining and describing well-being, researchers have described numerous variables that appear to be associated with the construct. Positive relations include satisfaction with family life, standard of living, and physical health (Campbell, Converse, & Rodgers, 1976), racial identity (Martinez, & Dukes, 1997), satisfaction with income (Braun, 1977), marriage (Andrews & Withey, 1976), love (Anderson, 1977), and education (Campbell, 1981). Moreover, many studies have demonstrated the relationship between psychological well-being, self-esteem (Betton, 2001; Pelham & Swann, 1989; Taylor & Brown, 1988), and social support (Turner, & Noh, 1983).

Ryffand Keyes (1995) have criticized early research on psychological well-being for not actually answering the basic question: What does being psychologically healthy mean? Ryff suggested that these theories of psychological well-being have had limited impact for three reasons: They have reproduced few credible assessment procedures, the criteria for well-being proposed by each are quite diverse, and each has been criticized as being "hopelessly value-laden" (Ryff, 1989b, p. …

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