Academic journal article Journal of Nursing Measurement

Refinement and Validation of the Episode-Specific Interpretations of Exercise Inventory

Academic journal article Journal of Nursing Measurement

Refinement and Validation of the Episode-Specific Interpretations of Exercise Inventory

Article excerpt

The purpose of this study was to refine an instrument to measure interpretations of exercise, the Episode-Specific Interpretations of Exercise Inventory (ESIE), and further examine its validity. This study was a secondary data analysis using community-dwelling older adults from two larger clinical trials. Fit indices from confirmatory factory analyses were strong. Cronbach's alphas for internal consistency reliability ranged from .70 to .91. Construct validity of the ESIE was supported by participants' reports of more sweating during the strength phase of exercise than during the flexibility phase and during the aerobic phase of exercise than during the flexibility and strength phases. In addition, correlations between the ESIE subscales and other feeling-related subscales made sense conceptually. In conclusion, that the ESIE provides a measure that examines older adults' exercise experience as well as their interpretations of that experience.

Keywords: exercise behavior; episode-specific interpretations; older adults; self-regulation

Although the benefits of exercise for older adults have been well established, they can only be realized when exercise is maintained. Yet few older adults maintain a regular exercise program. In fact, 31% of individuals 65-74 years of age and 23% of individuals 75 years and older report moderate physical activity for 20 minutes 3 or more days per week. Even fewer engage in vigorous physical activity for 20 minutes 3 or more days a week as indicated by 13% of individuals 65 to 74 years of age and 6% of those 75 years and older (U.S. HHS 2000). Clearly, there is a need for additional research and understanding of exercise maintenance for older adults.

Researchers have studied exercise maintenance using social-cognitive models, for example, self-efficacy, reasoned action, and planned behavior, as well as the transtheoretical model. These models focus on variables that are distal or remote to the sensations and thoughts experienced during an episode of exercise (Schneider, 1996). Because socialcognitive models operate mainly in terms of predisposition, they cannot explain more than a part of the variance in exercise behavior (Dishman, 1988; Godin, 1994). None of these theories assess exercisers' interpretations of their experiences during episodes of exercise. In this context, interpretation is the awareness of sensations, thoughts, and feelings associated with exercise and includes the meaning of exercise (Schneider, 1996). Schneider (1999) conducted exploratory psychometric work on an instrument to measure these interpretations, the Episode-Specific Interpretations of Exercise Inventory (ESIE). The purpose of this current study was to refine the ESIE and further examine its validity.

BACKGROUND AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Within a self-regulatory approach, both episode-specific and general interpretations of exercise explain exercise behavior. At the episode-specific level, individuals interpret exercise behavior during and after each episode of exercise. Episode-specific interpretations may change fairly quickly, have a direct effect on exercise behavior, and may alter immediate exercise behavior. At the general level, interpretations involve long-term information accumulated from all exercise episodes and are more stable than episode-specific interpretations because they include the overall meaning of exercise, beliefs, attitudes, and experiences outside of the exercise episode. For example, older individuals may interpret a single episode of exercise as hard work at the episode-specific level and as improving their bone density and cholesterol levels at the general level. Through a continuous feedback loop, each exercise episode adds new information to the interpretations of existing information. The aggregate of information, derived from a lifetime of experiences, observations, discussion with others, and the media, is interpreted and may alter goals and drive behaviors (Leventhal, Forster, & Leventhal, 2007). …

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