Academic journal article Genetics

C-Terminal Flap Endonuclease (Rad27 ) Mutations: Lethal Interactions with a DNA Ligase I Mutation (Cdc9-P) and Suppression by Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (POL30) in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

Academic journal article Genetics

C-Terminal Flap Endonuclease (Rad27 ) Mutations: Lethal Interactions with a DNA Ligase I Mutation (Cdc9-P) and Suppression by Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (POL30) in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

Article excerpt

ABSTRACT

During lagging-strand DNA replication in eukaryotic cells primers are removed from Okazaki fragments by the flap endonuclease and DNA ligase I joins nascent fragments. Both enzymes are brought to the replication fork by the sliding clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). To understand the relationship among these three components, we have carried out a synthetic lethal screen with cdc9-p, a DNA ligase mutation with two substitutions (F43A/F44A) in its PCNA interaction domain. We recovered the flap endonuclease mutation rad27-K325* with a stop codon at residue 325. We created two additional rad27 alleles, rad27-A358* with a stop codon at residue 358 and rad27-pX8 with substitutions of all eight residues of the PCNA interaction domain. rad27-pX8 is temperature lethal and rad27-A358* grows slowly in combination with cdc9-p. Tests of mutation avoidance, DNA repair, and compatibility with DNA repair mutations showed that rad27-K325* confers severe phenotypes similar to rad27Δ, rad27-A358* confers mild phenotypes, and rad27-pX8 confers phenotypes intermediate between the other two alleles. High-copy expression of POL30 (PCNA) suppresses the canavanine mutation rate of all the rad27 alleles, including rad27Δ. These studies show the importance of the C terminus of the flap endonuclease in DNA replication and repair and, by virtue of the initial screen, show that this portion of the enzyme helps coordinate the entry of DNA ligase during Okazaki fragment maturation.

CELLULAR maintenance of genomic integrity is essential for the continued viability of all organisms. The fidelity of DNA replication has to be maintained and DNA insults have to be repaired to ensure that deleterious mutations are not passed on to progeny or cause cancerous growth. A number of cellular proteins have multiple roles in DNA replication, mutation avoidance, and repair. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the flap endonuclease, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and DNA ligase I encoded by RAD27, POL30, and CDC9, respectively, are all required for proper replication and also function to avoid mutation and to facilitate repair.

The flap endonuclease, FEN-1 in humans, is a highly conserved structure-specific nuclease that has both endonuclease and 5'-3' exonuclease activity. During lagging-strand replication these activities function to remove primers from Okazaki fragments, either by endonucleolytic cleavage of a flap made by strand displacement (Liu et al. 2004) or by sequential exonucleolytic removal of single nucleotides at the 5' end of the primer (Murante et al. 1994).

While deletion of RAD27 is not lethal to yeast cells, the rad27Δ mutant exhibits temperature-sensitive growth, is a mutator, and undergoes genomic instability ( Johnson et al. 1995; Reagan et al. 1995; Tishkoff et al. 1997b; Chen and Kolodner 1999). In addition, its sensitivity to low doses of the methylating agent methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) implicates the participation of the enzyme in base excision repair (BER) (Reagan et al. 1995; Wu and Wang 1999). rad27Δ mutants have been reported to be either mildly sensitive to UV light or not sensitive to UV light (Reagan et al. 1995; Sommers et al. 1995). In the strain background that the mutant is mildly sensitive, its combination with rad2Δ yields a double mutant more sensitive than each single mutant, implying that the enzyme does not participate in RAD2- mediated nucleotide excision repair (NER) (Reagan et al. 1995). The flap endonuclease has also been implicated in double-strand break (DSB) repair by virtue of the incompatibility of rad27Δ with mutations of the DSB repair pathways (Tishkoff et al. 1997b; Symington 1998). In addition, either the yeast enzyme or its human ortholog has been shown to participate in reactions of homologous recombination, nonhomologous end joining, andtelomere maintenance (Parenteau and Wellinger 1999, 2002; Wu et al. 1999; Wang et al. 2004; Kikuchi et al. 2005). Curiously, the rad27Δ mutant is not sensitive to gamma radiation but is sensitive to high doses of MMS that are thought to act as a radiomimetic agent (Reagan et al. …

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