Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Psychometric Properties of a European Spanish Version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)

Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Psychometric Properties of a European Spanish Version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)

Article excerpt

This paper presents evidence from a heterogeneous sample of 440 Spanish adults, for the reliability and validity of a European Spanish version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), designed to measure the degree to which situations in one's life are appraised as stressful. The European Spanish version PSS (14-item) demonstrated adequate reliability (internal consistency, α = .81, and test-retest, r = .73), validity (concurrent), and sensitivity. Additional data indicate adequate reliability (α = .82, test-retest, r = .77), validity, and sensitivity of a 10-item short version of the PSS.

Keywords: PSS, psychometric properties, Spanish, Spain, perceived stress

El presente articulo demuestra la fiabilidad y la validez de la version espanola de la Escala de Estres Percibido (PSS en el original) a partir del estudio de las propiedades psicometricas de la escala en una muestra heterogenea de 440 adultos espanoles. La PSS fue disenada para medir el grado en que las situaciones en la vida se valoran como estresantes. La version espanola de la PSS (14-items) demostro una adecuada fiabilidad (consistencia interna, ¿ = .81, y test-retest, r = .73), validez (concurrente), y sensibilidad. Datos adicionales indicaron una fiabilidad (¿ = .82, test-retest, r = .77), validez, y sensibilidad adecuadas tambien para la version corta de 10-items (PSS-10).

Palabras clave: PSS, propiedades psicométricas, Español, España, estrés percibido

The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), developed by Cohen, Kamarck, and Mermelstein (1983), is being used with an increasing degree of regularity in a variety of samples. Studies utilizing the PSS as a measure of perceived stress include, for example, those addressing susceptibility to respiratory diseases (Cobb & Steptoe, 1996; Cohen, Doyle, & Skoner, 1999; Cohen, Tyrell & Smith, 1993); wound healing (Glaser et al., 1999); prostate cancer (Stone, Mezzacappa, Donatone, & Gonder, 1999); stress of caretakers of chronic (Alzheimer's) patients (Dyck, Short, & Vitaliano, 1999; Losada-Baltar, 2005; Stowell, Kiecolt-Glaser, & Glaser, 2001); academic stress (Malarkey, Pearl, Demers, Kiecolt-Glaser, & Glaser, 1995); stress related to HIV infection/AIDS (Cruess et al., 1999; Ironson et al., 2002; Remor, 2000; Remor & Carrobles, 2001); and stress related to psychiatric patients (Hewitt, Flett, & Mosher (1992).

The PSS was designed to measure "the degree to which individuals appraise situations in their lives as stressful" (Cohen, 1986, p. 716). Items evaluate the degree to which people find that life is unpredictable, uncontrollable, or overloaded. These three aspects have repeatedly been confirmed as central components of the experience of stress (e.g., Averill, 1973; Cohen, 1978; Glass & Singer, 1972; Lazarus, 1966; Seligman, 1975). The scale includes questions intended to evaluate the current level of stress experienced by the subject. The PSS is a brief scale, consisting of only 14 items (a shorter version with 10-items, the PSS-10, is also available), administered in only a few minutes, and easily scored. Moreover, because the PSS taps general beliefs about perceived stress without providing subjects with a list of specific life events, scores are not biased by event content or by differential recall of past life experiences.

Because the level of perceived stress seems to be influenced by daily stressors, vital events, and resources encountered by the subject, the temporal validity of stress evaluated by the PSS is brief: 8 weeks (Cohen et al., 1983).

Although previous studies in the U.S. and Canada (e.g., Cohen et al., 1983; Cohen, Kessler, & Gordon, 1995; Hewitt et al., 1992) suggest that the psychometric properties of the scale for evaluating perceived stress are adequate, it is necessary to study the psychometric properties in a Spanish sample. In previous work published in Spain (Remor & Carrobles, 2001), preliminary results including psychometric data suggested good performance of the scale in assessing perceived stress. …

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