Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Preliminary Validation in Spanish of a Scale Designed to Measure Motivation in Physical Education Classes: The Perceived Locus of Causality (PLOC) Scale

Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Preliminary Validation in Spanish of a Scale Designed to Measure Motivation in Physical Education Classes: The Perceived Locus of Causality (PLOC) Scale

Article excerpt

The purpose of this paper was to validate the Spanish version of the Perceived Locus of Causality Scale (PLOC; Goudas, Biddle, & Fox, 1994). To achieve this, two studies with samples of 1535 and 400 physical education students, of ages 12 to 17 years, were carried out. The psychometric properties of the PLOC were examined through the following analyses: confirmatory factor analysis, factor invariance, correlation among factors, reliability (Cronbach's alpha), temporal stability (test-retest), and criterion validity. The results partially supported the fivefactor structure. This structure was invariant across the two study samples. Correlations among the subscales indicated a simplex pattern, supporting construct validity of the scale. Alpha values over .70 (except for introjected regulation) and high temporal stability (intra-class correlation coefficient = .83 to .90) over a four-week period were obtained. The mastery-approach goal positively predicted self-determined motivation, whereas the performanceavoidance goal predicted it negatively. Future studies should continue to analyze the psychometric properties of the PLOC, as the validation of an instrument should be an ongoing process.

Keywords: motivation, self-determination, physical education, validation, achievement goals

El objetivo de este trabajo fue validar la versión española de la Escala del Locus Percibido de Causalidad (PLOC) de Goudas, Biddle y Fox (1994). Para ello, se llevaron a cabo dos estudios con muestras de 1535 y 400 alumnos en clases de educación física, edades entre 12 y 17 años. Se analizaron las propiedades psicométricas de la PLOC por medio de análisis factoriales confirmatorios, análisis de la invarianza factorial, análisis de correlaciones entre factores, fiabilidad a través del alfa de Cronbach, estabilidad temporal test-retest y validez de criterio. Los resultados ofrecieron un apoyo parcial a la estructura de cinco factores. Esta estructura se mostró invariante entre las dos muestras de estudio. Las correlaciones entre las subescalas indicaron un modelo simplex que apoya la validez de constructo de la escala. Se obtuvieron valores alfa de Cronbach superiores a .70, salvo para la regulación introyectada, y altos niveles de estabilidad temporal (coeficiente de correlación intra-clase = .83 a .90) en un periodo de cuatros semanas. La meta de aproximación-maestría predijo positivamente la motivación autodeterminada, mientras que la meta de evitación-rendimiento lo hizo de forma negativa. Futuros trabajos deberán continuar analizando las propiedades psicométricas de la PLOC, puesto que la validación de un instrumento debe ser un proceso continuado.

Palabras clave: motivación, autodeterminación, educación física, validación, metas de logro

One of the main goals of physical education classes is to provide the students with the necessary attitudes and motivations so they will practice sports outside of the academic timetable and for the rest of their whole lives. In the past few years, many works (Ntoumanis, 2001, 2005; Standage, Duda, & Ntoumanis, 2005, 2006) have analyzed motivation in physical education classes, using as reference the self-determination theory of Deci and Ryan (1985, 1991, 2000). This general motivation and personality theory was developed in the last three decades and contributes very interesting information to interpret adolescents' commitment to sport. It considers that there are different kinds of motivation and it places them along a continuum of selfdetermination, distinguishing whether the origin of such motivation is more internal or external to the subject (more or less self-determined). In this sense, the theory ranks them from higher to lower degree of self-determination: intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation.

Intrinsic motivation refers to participation in an activity for the very pleasure and satisfaction one feels from doing it. For example, a student who enjoys learning concepts about sports, performance techniques, and living stimulating experiences. …

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