Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Influence of Impulsivity-Reflexivity When Testing Dynamic Spatial Ability: Sex and G Differences

Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Influence of Impulsivity-Reflexivity When Testing Dynamic Spatial Ability: Sex and G Differences

Article excerpt

This work analyzes the possibility that the differences in the performance of men and women in dynamic spatial tasks such as the Spatial Orientation Dynamic Test-Revised (SODT-R; Santacreu & Rubio, 1998), obtained in previous works, are due to cognitive style (Reflexivity-Impulsivity) or to the speed-accuracy tradeoff (SATO) that the participants implement. If these differences are due to cognitive style, they would be independent of intelligence, whereas if they are due to SATO, they may be associated with intelligence. In this work, 1652 participants, 984 men and 668 women, ages between 18 and 55 years, were assessed. In addition to the SODT-R, the "Test de Razonamiento Analítico, Secuencial e Inductivo" (TRASI [Analytical, Sequential, and Inductive Reasoning Test]; Rubio & Santacreu, 2003) was administered as a measure of general intelligence. Impulsivity scores (Zi) of Salkind and Wright (1977) were used to analyze reflexivity-impulsivity and SATO. The results obtained indicate that (a) four performance groups can be identified: Fast-accurate, Slowinaccurate, Impulsive, and Reflexive. The first two groups solve the task as a function of a competence variable and the last two as a function of a personality variable; (b) performance differences should be attributed to SATO; (c) SATO differs depending on sex and intelligence level.

Keywords: dynamic spatial tasks, reflexivity-impulsivity, speed-accuracy tradeoff, sex differences, intelligence

El trabajo analiza la posibilidad de que las diferencias en la ejecución de varones y mujeres en tareas espaciales dinámicas como el Spatial Orientation Dynamic Test-Revised (SODT-R Santacreu y Rubio, 1998), obtenidas en trabajos previos, se deban al estilo cognitivo (Reflexividad-Impulsividad) o al balance velocidad-exactitud; (Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off, SATO) que los participantes pongan en marcha. De deberse al estilo cognitivo serían independientes de la inteligencia mientras que si se deben al balance Velocidad-Exactitud pueden estar asociadas a la inteligencia. Se evaluó a 1652 participantes, 984 varones y 668 mujeres, de edades comprendidas entre 18 y 55 años. Además del SODT-R se administró el Test de Razonamiento Analítico, Secuencial e Inductivo (TRASI; Rubio y Santacreu, 2003) como medida de inteligencia general. Para el análisis de la Reflexividad-Impulsividad (R-I) y el balance velocidad-exactitud se utilizaron las puntuaciones de impulsividad (Zi) de Salkind y Wright (1977). Los resultados obtenidos indican que: a/ se pueden identificar cuatro grupos de ejecución: Rápidos-exactos, Lentos inexactos, Impulsivos y Reflexivos. Los dos primeros resuelven la tarea en función de una variable competencial y los dos últimos en función de una variable de personalidad; b/ las diferencias en la ejecución deben atribuirse al balance VE; c/ este balance es diferente según el sexo y el nivel de inteligencia.

Palabras clave: tareas espaciales dinámicas, reflexividad-impulsividad, balance velocidad-exactitud, diferencias entre sexos, inteligencia

In the pioneer work of Pellegrino and Hunt (1989), dynamic spatial tasks are described as those in which the subjects must predict where the moving object is heading and when it will reach its destination. Santacreu and Rubio (1998) developed two dynamic spatial tasks to assess orientation-the Spatial Orientation Dynamic Test (SODTR)- and visualization-the Spatial Visual Dynamic Test (SVDT). In the dynamic spatial orientation task, the deviation from the destination point was used as the efficacy criterion, so that a superior performance directs the moving object in a smaller angle with regard to the destination. Men perform better than women (Contreras, Colom, Shih, Álava, & Santacreu, 2001) as is also noted in static spatial aptitude tasks (Voyer, Voyer, & Bryden, 1995). In order to understand these differences, a series of performance factors, considered response tendencies, were proposed, which can be measured only when the task can be performed in different ways (Goldstein, Haldane, & Mitchel, 1990). …

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