Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Estimates of Self, Parental, and Partner Multiple Intelligence and Their Relationship with Personality, Values, and Demographic Variables: A Study in Britain and France

Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Estimates of Self, Parental, and Partner Multiple Intelligence and Their Relationship with Personality, Values, and Demographic Variables: A Study in Britain and France

Article excerpt

In the present study, 151 British and 151 French participants estimated their own, their parents' and their partner's overall intelligence and 13 'multiple intelligences.' In accordance with previous studies, men rated themselves as higher on almost all measures of intelligence, but there were few cross-national differences. There were also important sex differences in ratings of parental and partner intelligence. Participants generally believed they were more intelligent than their parents but not their partners. Regressions indicated that participants believed verbal, logical-mathematical, and spatial intelligence to be the main predictors of intelligence. Regressions also showed that participants' Big Five personality scores (in particular, Extraversion and Openness), but not values or beliefs about intelligence and intelligences tests, were good predictors of intelligence. Results were discussed in terms of the influence of gender-role stereotypes.

Keywords: self-estimates, intelligence, cross-national, personality.

En el presente estudio, 151 participantes británicos y 151 franceses estimaron su propia inteligencia global y 13 "inteligencias múltiples", así como de sus padres y parejas. En concordancia con estudios previos, los varones se asignaban puntuaciones más altas en casi todas las medidas de inteligencia, pero había pocas diferencias trasnacionales. También había importantes diferencias por el sexo en las estimaciones de inteligencia de los padres y de la pareja. Los participantes creían, en general, que eran más inteligentes que sus padres pero no de sus parejas. Las regresiones indicaron que los participantes creían que la inteligencia lógico-matemática y la inteligencia espacial eran los predictores principales de la inteligencia. Las regresiones también mostraron que las puntuaciones de los participantes en los rasgos de personalidad Big Five (en particular, Extraversión y Apertura), pero no en valores o en creencias acerca de la inteligencia o de las pruebas de inteligencia, eran buenos predictores de la inteligencia. Se comentan los resultados en términos de la influencia de los estereotipos género-rol.

Palabras clave: auto-estimaciones, inteligencia, trasnacional, personalidad.

Renewed interest in possible disparities between expert and lay conceptions of intelligence has, in recent years, led some researchers to investigate self-assessments of intelligence (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2006). Through this growing body of literature, it has been possible to examine whether, and how, lay understandings of the meaning and nature of intelligence differ from expert opinion, and what practical importance this has in everyday life (e.g., Ackerman, 1999; Ackerman & Beier, 2003; Beloff, 1992; Bennett, 2000). Specifically, there now exists a raft of evidence showing that, when asked to estimate their own intelligence, women tend to give themselves lower scores than men, both within and across particular cultures (Byrd & Stacey, 1993; Furnham, 2001; Rammstedt & Rammsayer, 2002).

This sex difference is not restricted to self-assessments of intelligence: related evidence has shown that parents believe their male children to be more intelligent than their female children (Furnham & Gasson, 1998; Furnham, Reeves, & Budhani, 2002). Moreover, studies looking at estimates of parental, grandparental, and sibling intelligence appear to indicate that lay people believe their fathers to be more intelligent than their mothers (Byrd & Stacey, 1993), their grandfathers more intelligent than their grandmothers (Furnham & Rawles, 1995), and their brothers more intelligent than their sisters (Furnham, Fong, & Martin, 1999). In short, there is enough evidence to suggest that the sex difference in estimates of intelligence - what Furnham et al. (1999) have termed the 'male hubris-female humility effect' - is robust and consistent.

Nor is this phenomenon limited to particular cultures or nationalities: various studies have documented the male hubris-female humility effect for estimates of self and parental intelligence in East Asia (Furnham, Hosoe, & Tang, 2002), Southeast Asia (Furnham et al. …

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