Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Development of an Implicit Overall Well-Being Measure Using the Implicit Association Test

Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Development of an Implicit Overall Well-Being Measure Using the Implicit Association Test

Article excerpt

Usually, well-being has been measured by means of questionnaires or scales. Although most of these methods have a high level of reliability and validity, they present some limitations. In order to try to improve well-being assessment, in the present work, the authors propose a new complementary instrument: The Implicit Overall Well-Being Measure (IOWBM). The Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted to measure wellbeing by assessing associations of the self with well-being-related words. In the first study, the IOWBM showed good internal consistency and adequate temporal reliability. In the second study, it presented weak correlations with explicit well-being measures. The third study examined the validity of the measure, analyzing the effect of traumatic memories on implicit well-being. The results showed that people who remember a traumatic event presented low levels of implicit well-being compared with people in the control condition.

Keywords: well-being, implicit measurement, instrumental study, experiment.

El procedimiento más empleado para la evaluación del bienestar consiste en la utilización de cuestionarios de auto-informe. A pesar de que la mayor parte de estos instrumentos poseen un alto grado de fiabilidad y validez, presentan también algunas limitaciones. Por ello, para intentar complementarlos, en esta investigación se propone, mediante la adaptación del Implicit Association Test (IAT), un nuevo instrumento: la Medida Implícita de Bienestar General (MIBG), que proporciona una evaluación indirecta del bienestar mediante la medición de las asociaciones del Yo (vs. No-Yo) con las categorías Bienestar (vs. Malestar). En el primer estudio, la MIBG mostró una buena consistencia interna y una aceptable fiabilidad temporal. En el segundo estudio presentó débiles correlaciones con las medidas explícitas de bienestar. Para profundizar en la validez de esta medida se desarrolló un tercer estudio experimental que analizó la eficacia de la MIBG para recoger el efecto que tiene recordar un acontecimiento traumático sobre las medidas implícitas del bienestar, comprobando que, frente al grupo control, los participantes que recordaron un acontecimiento traumático mostraron implícitamente menores niveles de bienestar.

Palabras clave: bienestar, medición implícita, estudio instrumental, experimento.

As the study of well-being has developed in Psychology, the field has witnessed the appearance of two different (although partially overlapping) paradigms of its empirical approach. Each one was supported by a world model and a subject model. The first would be classified under what we generally call hedonism (Kahneman, Diener, & Schwarz, 1999) and upholds that well-being is nothing more than pleasure or happiness. Although there are many ways to assess pleasure or displeasure, most investigators of this trend have used the construct subjective well-being (SWB) to measure it (Diener & Lucas, 1999). SWB has two main components: people's emotional responses, also called affects, and life satisfaction. The second tradition considers that the development of human potential must be added to the dimension of happiness. This second viewpoint has been called eudaemonism (Waterman, 1993) and its study has led to the construct of psychological well-being. Although both traditions have followed different paths, current studies (e.g. Keyes, Shmotkin, & ryff, 2002) have concluded that both constructs are conceptually related, as they present a high estimated intercorrelation (r = .84), which justifies the extraction of a second-order factor called general well-being.

For both traditions, the easiest way to obtain information about people's well-being has consisted of asking the interested parties directly, and, for this purpose, one of the most common procedures has been to explicitly request people to fill in a questionnaire. The self-report has been a massive, quick, and economic way to obtain information, with the peculiarity that most well-being questionnaires reveal a high degree of reliability and validity, even in different cultures (see Blanco & Díaz, 2005; Díaz, rodríguez-Carvajal, Blanco, Moreno, gallardo, & Valle, 2006; Díaz, Blanco, Horcajo, & Valle, 2007; Javad Liaghatdar, Jafari, reza Abedi, & Samiee, 2008). …

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