Academic journal article Canadian Social Science

The Roots of Formation of Ayatollah Khomeini'S Political Thought/L'ORIGINE DE LA PENSÉE POLITIQUE D'AYATOLLAH KHOMEINI

Academic journal article Canadian Social Science

The Roots of Formation of Ayatollah Khomeini'S Political Thought/L'ORIGINE DE LA PENSÉE POLITIQUE D'AYATOLLAH KHOMEINI

Article excerpt

Abstract:

Sudden emerge of Ayatollah Khomeini as a prominent jurist in Iran and Muslim world political sphere and presenting Islamic Government theory considered by both Muslim and western scholars and analysts as a surprise. The Islamic Government theory which have been recognized as a turning point in Shi'a juridical and political thought, never deliberated and emphasized as much as this by any other Shi'a jurists before him. By focus upon and examining the personal experiences and interests, social and political affairs and his intellectual pursuits and the thoughts that affected his theorizing researcher aim to provide a more propound understanding of preconditions and roots of formation of his approach as well as its underlying structure. The study reveals that formation and development of his thought in the course of time in general and after publishing of his first political book, "Kashf al Asrar", where he shows loyalty to theory of "Constitutional government with designation and permission of jurists" to "Islamic Government" book which he announced his major shift from old theory to theory of "Governance of the jurists" in particular was result of a series of social, political events and intellectual factors in Iran's contemporary history that affected directly or indirectly his thought and contributed to formation, development and formulation of his thought.

Key words: Ayatollah Khomeini; Shi'a jurists; Islamic government; governance of the jurists; Iran, roots of approach

Résumé: L'apparition soudaine d'Ayatollah Khomeini en tant qu'un juriste proéminent en Iran et dans la sphère politique du monde musulman, qui représente la théorie de gouvernement islamique est considérée par les savants musulmans, occidentaux et les analystes comme une surprise. La théorie de gouvernement islamique, reconnue comme un tournant dans la pensée juridique et politique chiite, n'est jamais délibérée et soulignée autant par d'autres juristes chiites avant lui. En examinant et en se concentrant sur les expériences et les intérêts personnels, les affaires sociales et politiques, sa poursuite intellectuelle et ses pensées qui ont affecté la théorisation, les chercheurs tentent d'offrir une compréhension plus claire sur les conditions préalables et les racines de la formation de son approche ainsi que sa structure élémentaire. L'étude révèle que la formation et le développement de sa pensée dans le temps en général, et après la publication de son premier livre politique, Kashf al Asrar, où il montre la fidélité à la théorie du "gouvernement constitutionnel avec la désignation et l'autorisation des juristes", il se tourne vers Gouvernement islamique, dans ce livre il a annoncé son changement majeur de la théorie ancienne à la théorie de la «Gouvernance des juristes» en particulier. C'est le résultat d'une série des événements socio-politiques et des facteurs intellectuels dans l'histoire contemporaine de l'Iran qui a touché directement ou indirectement sa pensée et contribué à la formation, au développement et à la formulation de sa pensée.

Mots-Clés: Ayatollah Khomeini; juristes chiites; gouvernement islamique; governance des juristes; Iran; origie de l'approche

1. INTRODUCTION

It is not deniable that the thought of thinkers are developed and evolved gradually during the political and social evolutions in accordance with their intellectual pre-occupations. Therefore, the study of their thoughts and works cannot provide us a clear picture of different aspects of their thoughts, without having a good knowledge and understanding of their personal background (family background, social, cultural and political backgrounds, etc.) the impacts of their different experiences as well as their intellectual pursuits (activist life, intellectual life) on process of formation, development and formulation of their thought. The case of the thoughts of Ayatollah Khomeini is not an exception in this regard. His sudden emergence in the political sphere is considered to be one of the most interesting parts of Iran's contemporary history. …

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