This article summarizes two studies that use statewide school-based youth surveys to evaluate local initiatives to reduce alcohol and other substance abuse. The Vermont New Directions evaluation was conducted to assess the effects of a community-based intervention in 23 Vermont communities to reduce youth substance use. Outcome data were obtained from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, which is administered to students in grades 8 through 12 every other year in almost all school districts in the state. Based on a quasi-experimental design, results indicated significant declines in cigarette and marijuana use in intervention districts relative to comparison districts during the study period, and led to legislative action to continue funding the initiative. The Oregon Reducing Youth Access to Alcohol study is now being conducted in 36 Oregon communities (45 school districts) with a randomized controlled design to evaluate six combined environmental strategies to reduce underage drinking. The strategies include a reward and reminder program and minor decoy operations to reduce commercial alcohol availability, party patrol dispersal and minor in possession arrests to reduce social alcohol availability, traffic emphasis, and media advocacy to increase visibility of policy enforcement activities.
KEY WORDS: Surveys, youth, subsance use, Oregon, alcohol.
Systematic statewide youth surveys in the U.S. began in 1990 as part of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System - now commonly referred to as the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) - designed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2006). The YRBS is conducted every 2 years, and is designed to obtain national and state estimates for the prevalence and incidence of health-related behaviors that could place adolescents at risk for acute or chronic health problems, including alcohol, tobacco, and other substance use. Some states also extend the sampling design of the YRBS in order to provide estimates for individual schools systems or communities. YRBS data thus provide a scientific basis for identifying and addressing public health problems in the adolescent population and monitoring progress towards achieving Healthy People 2010 objectives (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005). Some states have added their own items to the YRBS that solicit other healthrelated information from adolescents that is of special interest and relevance to the state and/or participating communities.
Statewide youth survey data provide health researchers with the opportunity to evaluate local policies and programs aimed at reducing adolescent substance abuse and related risk behaviors. This may be accomplished through a natural or planned experiment, wherein the type(s) and/or intensity of policy or program implementation varies across an adequate number of localities within a state. This article describes two studies that were designed to evaluate local policies and programs designed to reduce adolescent substance abuse in Vermont and Oregon. We provide an overview of these studies and discuss the utility of statewide youth surveys as well as their limitations for this type of research.
Vermont New Directions Evaluation
In 1997, Vermont was one of five initial states to receive a State Incentive Grant (SIG) from the U.S. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. This grant supported 23 community coalitions across the state in identifying and implementing a range of youth substance use prevention strategies. Vermont's SIG, titled New Directions (ND), represented a major shift in the state's approach to substance abuse prevention through its funding of community coalitions rather than individual programs, its emphasis on the use of research-based prevention programs and strategies, and the high level of training, technical assistance, and financial support provided to the coalitions. The project was implemented by the Vermont Department of Health Division of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Programs, and evaluated by researchers from RTI International and the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE). …