Academic journal article South Asian Journal of Management

Motivation, Performance and Satisfaction among University Teachers: Comparing Public and Private Sectors in Pakistan and Malaysia

Academic journal article South Asian Journal of Management

Motivation, Performance and Satisfaction among University Teachers: Comparing Public and Private Sectors in Pakistan and Malaysia

Article excerpt

The research aims to determine the difference in performance, achievement motivation and job satisfaction of teaching faculties of selected private and public sector higher educational institutions of Pakistan and Malaysia, which are countries representing South/South-East Asia in cross-cultural perspective. The sample consisted of 120 Heads of the departments and teaching faculties of Pakistan (N = 60) and Malaysia (N = 60). With the consent of the Vice Chancellors/ Registrars/Deans of the faculties, the Heads of the Department (HODs) were requested to rate the performance of their teaching faculty on University Teacher's Evaluation Rating Questionnaire (UTERQ). Then two senior and regular teachers from each teaching faculty of the department completed Personal Information Form following Costello Achievement Motivation Scale (CAMS, adapted English version by Misra and Srivastava, 1990) and Job Satisfaction Scale (Singh and Sharma, 1999). Scoring was made according to the standard procedures as mentioned in the manuals. In order to treat the scores in statistical terminology, t-test was applied. The results indicate that when comparison was made separately between private and public higher educational institutions of Pakistan and Malaysia, the achievement motivation of teaching faculties of Malaysian private and public sector is higher than that of Pakistan. Similarly, the performance of public sector Malaysian teaching faculties seems to be better than public sector Pakistani faculties, although their evaluation mean score fall in the good range. However, the performance of private sector teachers of Pakistan and Malaysia do not differ. Further more, Pakistani public sector faculties seems to be more satisfied with their teaching jobs than Pakistani private sector teachers, although their performance and achievement motivation are alike. Whereas Malaysian public sector faculties not only seem to perform better than private sector Malaysian teachers but they are also more satisfied with their teaching profession than the latter group, regardless of similarity in their achievement motivation.


In higher educational institutions, teachers play an important role in development of motivation in students to strive for higher grades. Their guidance, suggestions and involvement in administrative activities help management of educational institutions to reach their goals of accomplishment and having good national and international standing.

Teachers or any other employee's attitude towards their work can be best measured through their work performance, achievement, motivation and job satisfaction. As there are two main types of higher educational institutions, public university, and private university, the main focus, especifically in educational research, is on the grades of students in order to formulate ranking of particular private or public sector universities. Whether it is educational institution or any other organization, the factors responsible for better accomplishment of employees are some what similar. Different theories came forward to give answer to reasons behind high and low functioning· of the personnel.

What are the factors responsible for better performance, job satisfaction and enhancement of achievement motivation are some of the questions, for which different theorists came forward to give answers. Starting from the intrinsic or extrinsic motives for better performance, gradually they moved towards content theories of work motivation - Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Herzberg's Two-Factor "Theory of Motivation, Aldefer's ERG Theory, Vroom's Expectancy Theory of Work Motivation, The Porter-Lawler Multi-variable Model, Adams Equity Theory of Work Motivation, Organization Justice Theory, Control Theory and Agency Theory emphasized on causes of work environment motivation, job satisfaction and performance in one way or the other.

Then innumerable theories came forward emphasizing leadership style as the core issue for the development of high level of employee's performance, accomplishment, achievement and job satisfaction. …

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