Academic journal article South Asian Journal of Management

Measuring the Construct of Workplace Forgiveness: A Confirmatory Assessment Using SAS Proc Calis Procedure

Academic journal article South Asian Journal of Management

Measuring the Construct of Workplace Forgiveness: A Confirmatory Assessment Using SAS Proc Calis Procedure

Article excerpt

Forgiveness is a robust construct, featured widely in western academic journals. However, academic discourse on workplace forgiveness is relatively rare. This paper attempts to contribute by filling up this gap and attempts to evaluate the integrity of the forgiveness construct in the Indian workplace scenario. Workplace violence signifies relative absence of footprint of forgiveness inside the organizational settings in India. The author used SAS Proc Calis procedure to evaluate the robustness of the construct. Utilization of structural equation modelling is a very recent phenomenon and is preferred for its rigor. In line with the recent advancement, the author has utilized factor analysis, and subsequently structural equation modelling technique for the present work. The findings of the research corroborate that the construct is appeared to be robust and could be utilized for other derivative studies. The present research relies upon limited sample. Hence, the results are required to be taken with requisite reservation and careful consideration.

When you seek revenge, dig two graves.

-Chinese Proverbs


Recently, India witnessed a few of severe workplace violence. On 23, 2008, the Times of India reported some murder of Chief Officer of a multinational company sacked the Indian workers. workplace violence is not rare. In the part of industrialization in India over last few decades, workplace violence the result of tussle between various trade union factions and industrial houses for political, economic and social benefits (Bhattacharjee and Ackers, 2008). As India enters into high growth economy, this tussle is being replaced by new types 0f violence, mostly triggered apparently due to unjust experiences. The author believes that one of the ways to evaluate the problem is to link workplace violence vrith forgiveness.

Forgivingness has been defined by Roberts (1995) as "the disposition to abort one's anger (or altogether to miss getting angry) at persons one takes to have wronged one culpably, by seeing them in the benevolent terms provided by reasons characteristic of forgiving" (p. 290). Another way to define it is as "...a willingness to abandon one's right to resentment, negative judgment, and indifferent behavior toward one who unjustly injured us, while fostering the undeserved qualities of compassion, generosity and even love toward him or her." (Enright et al, 1998, pp. 46-47). Prime derivatives from these definitions are: (1) Dilution of anger towards a person, who committed wrong; and (2) Positive outlook towards the person who committed wrong. In other words, it signifies absence of revenge intention and presence of positive frame of mind towards the person, who committed wrong.


As India makes strides towards developed economy, employees working in the Indian service sector are exposed to different set of challenges, which are unlike the experience of manufacturing sector. Employee requires to be emotionally literate to handle emotional dissonance, which may arises as a product of exposure to service production environment. Unjust experience in organizational context is inevitable. Source of unjust experience may be due to inequitable procedure, unfair distribution of scarce organizational resources, rude behavior of customers, etc. In some cases, unpleasant experience arises out of unsuccessful interactions with employees and colleagues. Some of other sources of unjust experience could be sexual harassment, workplace bullying, etc. Besides, aesthetic preference over merit may also cause substantial unjust experience in the minds and hearts of employees, working in the service sector. Fairness heuristic theory supports the claim that in an organizational environment, one requires to submit themselves to others in a deep network of relationship. Often, submission to other reduces the freedom, flexibility and control. …

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